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Basque Nationhood

Towards a Democratic Scenario


Edited By Pedro Ibarra Güell and Åshild Kolås

Debates about Basque self-determination were curtailed for decades by political violence, involving both the actions of ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) and the counter-terrorism activities of Spain and France. In 2011, ETA announced a permanent cessation of operations. Since then, stakeholders have become increasingly aware of the need to rethink Basque nationhood and democratic representation in light of the changing nature of nationhood and citizenship within the European Union. These issues are also topical in the French Basque country, which has witnessed a re-emergence of Basque identity politics in recent years.
This book describes the contemporary re-imagining of Basque nationhood in both Spain and France. Taking a fresh look at the history of Basque nationalist movements, it explores the new debates that have emerged since the demise of non-state militancy. Alongside analysis of local transformations, it also describes the impact of global changes on ideas about Basque self-determination.


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List of Figures vii List of Tables viii Acronyms ix Acknowledgements xi Map of the Basque Country xiii Pedro Ibarra Güell and Iban Galletebeitia Gabiola Introduction 1 Francisco Letamendia 1 The Violent Conflict: Actors, Histories, Models and Discourses 33 Henar Criado 2 Legacies of the Past and Basque Identity after the Democratic Transition 63 Ane Larrinaga and Mila Amurrio 3 The Ethno-linguistic Movement and Linguistic Self-determination in Euskara 83 Asier Blas 4 Identity, Territoriality and Basque Secessionism: The Issue of Navarre 121 vi Mateo Ballester 5 Constitutional Patriotism and Constitutionalism in the Basque Country 151 Iñigo Urrutia and Zelai Nikolas 6 Legal Limits of Decentralization in Spain: Accommodation or Secession? 183 Eduardo J. Ruiz-Vieytez 7 Basque Sovereigntism and New Diversities in the Post-Violence Scenario 219 Igor Ahedo 8 Iparralde: The Emergence of the Basque Territory in France 253 Julen Zabalo and Txoli Mateos 9 National Identities in the Basque Country: Present and Future Trends 281 Glossary 309 Notes on Contributors 313 Index 319

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