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Arbeitsmarktentwicklung und -regulierung

Zwischen Fachkräftemangel und Migration

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Edited By Stefan Kolev, Bernhard Seliger, Jüri Sepp and Ralph Michael Wrobel

Der Arbeitsmarkt stellt traditionell in vielen marktwirtschaftlich organisierten Gesellschaften einen Ausnahmebereich dar. Dabei darf nicht vergessen werden, dass es sich auch beim Arbeitsmarkt um einen Markt handelt, bei dem die Preisbildung durch Angebot und Nachfrage zustande kommt. Derzeit sind Fachkräftemangel und Migration die zentralen Themen.

Die Beiträge diskutieren die Interdependenz dieser beiden Entwicklungen sowohl aus volkswirtschaftlicher als auch aus betriebswirtschaftlicher Perspektive. Zusätzlich untersuchen sie sektorale Arbeitsmärkte in Europa sowie internationale Entwicklungen, sowohl im Hinblick auf die marktlichen Aspekte als auch auf die staatliche Regulierung. Damit bietet der Band einen vielseitigen Überblick über die derzeit meistdiskutierten Themen der Arbeitsmarktentwicklung.

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The Development and Typology of the Employment Structure in OECD Countries (Jüri Sepp / Helje Kaldaru / Uku Varblane)

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Jüri Sepp, Helje Kaldaru and Uku Varblane

The Development and Typology of the Employment Structure in OECD Countries

1.   Introduction

Sectoral changes are nowadays an integral feature of economic development in all countries and hence gaining the attention of several economists. Structural changes occur in different aggregation levels, from inter-industry change to inter-sectoral change. In this paper we are considering shifts at a more aggregated sectoral level. According to the three-sector-hypothesis (Fisher 1939, Clark 1940 or Fourastié 1949) and the convergence argument of Chenery and Taylor (1968), European countries should have experienced similar development patterns and should achieve a similar economic structure with a dominant tertiary sector. The results of previous studies (Eichengreen / Gupta 2009, Maroto-Sanchez 2010, Jorgenson / Timmer 2011, Dzhain 2012), confirm that the process of tertiarization (orientation towards the service economy) is spreading throughout the world, especially among the postindustrial countries. However, it is noteworthy that in terms of employment tertiarization the European Union (EU) significantly lags behind United States, while at the same time, in terms of value added, the difference is substantially smaller. This indicates that tertiarization is a complex, multidimensional phenomenon, which is influenced by sectoral returns and the internal structure of the economy, as well as the socio-economic characteristics of the countries (Gregory / Salverda / Schettkat 2007).

The gradually increasing share of the service sector could be explained by various factors. In general this process is influenced by...

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