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Digitalization of Education – The How and Why of Lifelong Learning

Research Results Concerning Online-Further Education in Tourism. Significance – Expectation – Utilisation

Lars Rettig

More and more parts of our lives are being digitally enriched. The field of education is no exception. The learning and working worlds are changing, and therefore also the requirements for education, continuing education and further education. At the same time, the period in which knowledge is up-to-date is ever shorter. Thus the ability to do Lifelong Learning is not only decisive for the success of the individual, but also for the sustainable existence of companies, economic sectors and whole regions/destinations. On the basis of psychological, pedagogical and economical concepts the author deals with the How and Why of learning. Based on this he investigates the significance of Online-Further Education in Tourism by means of qualitative expert interviews.

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10 Expectations of Academic Online Further Education in Tourism


10.1 C/D Paradigm

The expectation of a service significantly influences the perceived satisfaction of the customer with the same. The theoretical model for this is the C/D Paradigm1 (confirmation-disconfirmation paradigm), which is often referred to in literature on customer satisfaction and which can be seen in Figure 24 below. In the case of further education courses, the potential customer2 is a person interested in further education with an individual, subjective expectation of this service. The comparison of the expectation with the experienced service takes place in the course of the service process (see Figure 25). The expected target state, also referred to as the reference standard, is continuously compared to the found actual state and thus confirmed (confirmation) or rebutted (disconfirmation). ← 99 | 100 →

Figure 24: C/D Paradigm3

While exact confirmation marks the confirmation level of satisfaction, disconfirmation can be both positive (exceed), and negative (i.e. below the confirmation level). This results in satisfaction over or at the confirmation level or dissatisfaction below the level of confirmation (see Figure 24).

10.2 Process Model of Service Provision

In the course of this process, the person interested in further education meets the provider at various contact points. In the run-up to this, transaction costs arise in the context of transaction cost theory4 – initially in the form of search costs and information costs with the prospective interested party. The theory is based on the assumption that in our complex world, it is...

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