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The Historical Distinctiveness of Central Europe

A Study in the Philosophy of History

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Krzysztof Brzechczyn

The aim of this book is to explain economic dualism in the history of modern Europe. The emergence of the manorial-serf economy in the Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary in the 16th and the 17th centuries was the result of a cumulative impact of various circumstantial factors. The weakness of cities in Central Europe disturbed the social balance – so characteristic for Western-European societies – between burghers and the nobility. The political dominance of the nobility hampered the development of cities and limited the influence of burghers, paving the way to the rise of serfdom and manorial farms. These processes were accompanied by increased demand for agricultural products in Western Europe

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Name Index

Name Index

A

Abramowski, Edward 345

Ackoff, Russel L. 154, 353

Ajnenkiel, Andrzej 320, 368

Alaric I 38

Albrecht, Duke of Brunswick 191

Albrecht, Landgrave of Thuringia 191

Anderson, Perry 259, 368

Andrew II, king of Hungary 302

Andropov, Yuri 197

Arnold, Udo 188, 368

Atkinson, Ronald Field 19, 353

Aubin, Herman 274, 368

Augustine of Hippo 34, 38, 39, 353

B

Babinskas, Nerijus 64, 263, 368

Bak, Janos 305, 368

Banaszak, Tomasz 176, 353

Barański, Marek 260, 368

Bartkowiak, Marian 193, 368

Barycz, Hernyk 294, 368, 371

Bazylow, Ludwik 199, 200, 369

Benton, Ted 30, 353

Berger, Stephen 360

Berlin, Isaiah 6, 20, 21, 27, 36, 353

Betts, Reginald R. 53, 369

Biskup, Marian 185, 186191, 193, 369

Blum, Jeremy 7, 55, 57, 79, 8082, 84, 85, 369

Bogucka, Maria 278, 281, 283, 290292, 298, 301, 308, 369

Bojtár, Endre 44, 369

Bolotnikov, Ivan 199

Bonnell, Victoria E. 107, 108, 353

Booth, Alan 229, 230, 369

Borbone, Giacomo 10, 94, 109, 158, 353, 355, 365

Bratkiewicz, Jarosław 24, 353

Brenner, Robert 7, 57, 6569, 86, 369

Brzechczyn, Krzysztof 10, 32, 109, 114, 128, 142, 158, 163, 171, 172, 174176, 181, 190, 197, 320, 321, 334, 339, 341, 353358, 360, 364, 365, 366, 368

Brzeziński, Jerzy 94, 102, 104, 113, 147, 155, 171, 231, 324, 356, 358, 359, 362, 363, 366

Buczek, Karol 262, 370

Buksiński, Tadeusz 20, 34, 35, 356

Burbelka, Jolanta 324, 356

Burke, Peter 44, 49, 53, 270, 271, 290, 296, 301, 306, 369, 370, 372, 377, 380, 381

C

Carlos, Phyllis 371

Carretero, Mario 360

Casimir Jagiellonian, king of Poland 288

Casimir the Great, king of Poland 293

Charlemagne 51, 196

Chirot, Daniel 7, 57, 65, 7577, 369, 370

Christabel, Margaret Meredith 375

Chwalisz, Piotr 105, 356

Ciesielski, Mieszko 114, 171, 172, 174176, 224, 339, 354, 356, 357, 364, 368

Cieślak, Edmund 191, 370

Cipolla, M. Carlo270, 370, 376

Clapham, John Harald 274, 368

←383 | 384→

Cohn, Norman 35, 357

Collins, Randall 32, 33, 357

Comte Auguste 34

Coniglione, Francesco 94, 102, 104, 357359

Craib, Ian 30, 353

Czajkowski, Waldemar 171, 357

D

Danto, Arthur 19, 357

De Marchi, Neil 155, 358, 362

Delanty, Gerard 42, 370

Demel, Juliusz 304, 370

Domańska, Ewa 34, 357

Domar, Evsey D. 7, 115, 117120, 357

Dózsa 304, 305

E

Egiert, Robert 224, 357

F

False Dmitry I 199

False Dmitry II 199

Felczak, Walczak 304, 370

Ferdinand I 309, 310

Filar, Dariusz 378

Frank, Tibor 305, 368

Fügedi, Eric 271, 370

Fukuda, Hiroshi 52, 371

Fukuyama, Francis 33, 34, 37, 39, 357

Fuliński, Andrzej 136, 137, 357

G

Gadamer, Hans George 143, 144, 153, 358

Garcia de la Sienra, Adolfo 224, 358

Garner, Lawrence 359

Gawor, Leszek 34, 358

Gąsiorowski, Andrzej 271, 370

Gellner, Ernest 33, 358

Genghis Khan 198

George of Poděbrady, king of Bohemia 309

Ghosh, Kenneth 22, 358

Gierowski, Jerzy 200, 371

Gieysztor, Andrzej 279, 371, 380

Goćkowski, Janusz 9

Górski, Karol 188, 195, 371

Grabińska, Teresa 9, 321, 354

Grabski, Andrzej Feliks 19, 358

Graubard, Stephen R. 46, 377

Grever, Maria 360

Grodecki, Roman 294, 296, 371

Grzegorz, Maksymilan 192, 371

Gupta, Shiv K. 154, 353

Gutenberg, Johannes 150

H

Halecki, Oskar 44, 48, 371

Hall, John A. 30, 358

Hamminga, Bert 155, 358, 362

Hanák, Peter 305, 368

Handelsman, Marceli 139, 142, 143, 358

Hardy, Henry 21, 353

Hayashi, Tadayuki 52, 371

Heck, Roman 310312, 314, 371

Hegel, George Wilhelm Friedrich 33, 34

Helleiner, Karl 271, 371

Heller, Mikhail 197, 198, 201, 371

Herodotus 24

Holton, Robert 281, 358

Hornowska, Elżbieta 102, 103, 358

Hoszowski, Stanisław 280, 372

Hroch, Miroslav 280, 372

Hulewicz, Jan 294, 368, 371

Hunt, Verl F. 64, 85, 372

Huntington, Samuel 2527, 39, 359

Husa, Vaclav 310, 312, 314, 372

←384 | 385→

I

Iyer, Arun 358

Ivan the Terrible 197

J

Jozek, Milan 51, 374

Jurová, Jarmila 51, 374

K

Kahan, Arcadius 283, 372

Kalberg, Stephen 107, 359

Kamenev, Lev 201

Kant Immanuel 34

Karczyńska, Eliza 114, 171, 172, 174176, 339, 354, 356, 357, 364, 368

Kieniewicz, Jan 337, 338, 359

Kiepas, Andrzej 51, 374

Király, Bela K. 305, 372

Kirschbaum, Stanislav 53, 372

Kiš, Danilo 44, 372

Kiss, Istvan N. 306, 372

Klarman, Agnieszka 176, 355

Klawiter, Andrzej 105, 140, 171, 207, 324, 356, 359

Klein, Lawrence 91, 92, 359

Klima, Anton 312, 313, 372

Kluchevsky, Vasily 119

Kłosek, Eugeniusz 176, 355

Kochanowicz, Jacek 128, 359

Koczy, Leon 184, 372

Koenigsberger, Helmut George 280, 372

Kofman, Jan 52, 372

Komoroczy, Gyorgy 305, 373

Konopczyński, Władysław 298, 373

Konrad of Mazovia 190

Konrád, Georgy 44, 373

Kormendy, Adrienne 271, 373

Korta, Wacław 263, 373

Kuderowicz, Zbigniew 19, 20, 359

Kuipers, T.A.F. 102, 104, 358, 360

Kula, Witold 7, 120129, 131, 359

Kulesza, Władysław 320, 373

Kundera, Milan 43, 373

Kurowski, Stefan 275, 373

L

Labuda, Gerard 185191, 193, 369

Lamentowicz, Wojciech 224, 359

Lange, Matthew 107, 359

Lazari-Pawłowska, Iija 162, 360

Lenin, Vladimir 201203

Longworth, Philip 268, 284, 286, 373

Lorenz, Chris 30, 31, 360

Louis I, king of Hungary 302

Louis II of Hungary 309

Lousse, E. 283

Lyotard, Jean-Francois 6, 20, 31, 32, 38, 39, 360

ŁŁastowski, Krzysztof 20, 104, 171, 207, 213, 231, 324, 356, 359, 360, 366

Łojek, Jerzy 139, 140, 373

Łowmiański, Henryk 185, 190, 191, 264, 266, 273, 373, 374

Łukasiewicz, Sławomir 43, 374

M

Macek, Josef 308, 310, 374

Machura, Piotr 51, 374

Magala, Sławomir 324, 356

Mákkai, Laslo 305, 316, 374

Makowiecki, Stefan 378

Malewski, Andrzej 32, 163, 164, 360

Małowist, Marian 7, 5759, 86, 87, 270, 271, 274, 275, 280, 298, 374, 375

Marcellinus 38

←385 | 386→

Marx Karl 27, 33, 34, 115

Masaryk, Tomas 52, 375

Mauro, Frederic 7, 116, 131135, 360

Mazur, Marcin 176, 365

Mączak, Antoni 49, 270, 271, 280, 290, 291, 296, 301, 306, 369, 370, 372, 374, 377, 380, 381

McCloskey, Donald N. 137, 360

Mieszko I 163

Mika, Alois 308, 310, 375

Modzelewski, Karol 260266, 375

Moore, Barrington 33, 360

Mosse, George L. 280, 372

N

Naumann, Friedrich 43, 375

Nekrich, Aleksander 197, 198, 201, 371

Nowak, Leszek 9, 10, 21, 27, 29, 3032, 37, 91, 94, 98, 102, 104106, 121, 136, 141, 144, 147, 155, 159, 160, 165, 171, 173, 176, 178, 181, 183, 184, 190, 198, 199, 201, 206208, 210, 211, 213, 214, 219226, 259, 324, 329332, 338343, 344, 353, 354364, 366, 367

Nowak, Marek 114, 354

Nowakowa, Izabella 94, 98, 157, 158, 363

O

Ochmański, Jerzy 200, 375

Okey, Robin 44, 375

Orzechowski, Marian 310312, 314, 371

Otto I, German emperor 196

Otto II , German emperor 196

Otto III, German emperor 196

Otto III, Margrave of Brandenburg 191

Ottokar II, the king of Czech 191

Ottokar II 191

P

Pach, Zsigmond Pal 280, 304306, 375

Paprzycka Katarzyna 27, 94, 147, 224, 342, 343, 363

Paprzycki, Marcin 10, 27, 94, 147, 171, 176, 181, 190, 224, 341343, 354, 355, 357, 363, 364, 366

Patryas, Włodzimierz 207, 324, 356, 359

Pawelec, Tomasz 43, 375

Petran, Josef 280, 372

Piskorski, Jerzy 272274, 278, 375

Plato 35

Podraza, Antoni 44, 51, 54, 376

Podwińska, Zofia 273, 376

Polybius 35

Power, Eileen 274, 368, 370

Prodan, David 304, 376

Przybysz, Piotr 171, 176, 329, 330, 353, 361, 363, 365

R

Reychman, Jerzy 304, 376

Rich, E.E 271, 371

Rickert, Heinrich 162

Rosenberg, Hans 196, 376

Rosłanowski, Tadeusz 279, 371, 380

Rusiński, Władysław 7, 57, 7779, 85, 294, 299, 376

Russel, Josiah Cox 270, 376

Russocki, Stanisław 259, 271, 302, 376

Rutkowska-Płachcińska, Anna 270, 377

Rutkowski, Jan 7, 57, 8284, 130, 294, 298, 377

Ryszka, Franciszek 320, 377

←386 | 387→

S

Sadova, Vera 310, 377

Samsonowicz Henryk 49, 149, 150, 270, 271, 278, 279, 280, 281, 290292, 296, 298, 301, 306, 369, 370, 372, 374, 377, 380, 381

Sayer Minas, J. 154, 353

Schöffer, I. 84, 85, 378

Schöpflin, George 44, 4648, 377

Sedlar, Jean W. 53, 377, 378

Sigismund III Vasa 199, 200

Sinnhuber, Karl 44, 378

Skuratov, Malyuta 197

Soto, de Hernando 344, 345, 378

Špiesz, Anton 310, 316, 378

Stalin, Joseph 22, 197, 198, 201

Stańczyk, Jerzy 52, 378

Sugar, Peter F. 53, 305, 368, 378

Swietopelk I, Duke of Pomerania 197

Syrnyk, Jarosław 176, 355

Szekely, J. 304, 378

Szporluk, Roman 52, 378

Szűcs, Jeno 44, 49, 50, 378

T

Tempczyk, Michał 136, 365

Theodoric, Margrave of Meisen 191

Thomson, Harrison 310, 378

Todorova, Maria 53, 378

Tomaszewski, Jerzy 5254, 320, 378

Tomczak, Grzegorz 181, 231, 330, 331, 366

Topolski, Jerzy 7, 9, 32, 41, 57, 64, 6974, 82, 94, 115, 128131, 138, 139, 140, 157, 163, 164, 171, 360, 361, 366, 367, 379

Toynbee, Arnold 33, 38

Treadgold, Donald W. 53, 378

Tucker, Aviezer 6, 20, 33, 34, 36, 367

Tymieniecki, Kazimierz 75, 272, 277, 379

V

Vandevelde, Pol 358

Vasili IV, tsar of Russia 199, 200

Vico, Giambattista 19, 33

Vladislav IV, king of Poland 199, 200

Voltaire 19

W

Wallerstein, Immanuel 7, 33, 57, 6064, 367

Walsh, William Henry 19, 367

Walters, Garrison E. 44, 45, 379

Wandycz, Piotr 44, 50, 53, 379

Weber, Max 115

Wędzki, Andrzej 278, 279, 379

White, Lynn 281, 379

Wichrowski, Marek 22, 34, 35, 367

Wilson, Charles 271, 371

Wiśniewski, Marian 378

Witkowski, Michał 106, 207, 367

Wittfogel, Karl A. 24, 25, 379

Wojtanowicz, Józef 44, 45, 380

Wójcik, Zbigniew 54, 200, 380

Wright, William E. 311, 380

Wyczański, Andrzej 64, 290, 294296, 298, 299, 380

Z

Zabierowski, Mirosław 321, 354

Zagorin, Peter 230, 231, 367

Zajączkowski, Stanisław 185, 195, 380

Zarathustra 35

Zarębski, Tomasz 174, 367

Zeidler, Paweł 20, 356

Zielińska, Renata 105, 368

←387 | 388→

Zientara, Benedykt 7, 57, 74, 75, 85, 196, 272, 279, 380, 381

Zimányi, Vera 301, 305, 381

Žiemelis, Darius 63, 64, 381

Ż

Żarnowski, Janusz 50, 320, 368, 377, 378, 381

Żółkiewski, Stanislav 199

Żytkowicz, Leonid 293, 294, 296, 381

←388 | 389→