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Cultures in Conflict

Religion, History and Gender in Northern Europe c. 1800–2000

Edited By Alexander Maurits, Johannes Ljungberg and Erik Sidenvall

This book includes studies of main conflict areas in modern Western societies where religion has been a central element, ranging from popular movements and narratives of opposition to challenges of religious satire and anti-clerical critique. Special attention is given to matters of politics and gender. With this theme, it provides a useful guide to conflict areas in modern European religious history.

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Johannes Ljungberg, Alexander Maurits & Erik Sidenvall

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Johannes Ljungberg, Alexander Maurits & Erik Sidenvall

Interconnected Conflicts: Religion,

History, and Gender

Conflicts are often the given starting-point in historical research. Sources of various kinds, to be interpreted and contextualised by the present-day scholar, not infrequently emerge from within conflicts. The memory of past clashes − social, political or ideological − are often kept alive within any given society for an extended period of time, a fact which adds both urgency and a surprising complexity to the study of conflicts in history.

Since the Second World War, the international community of historians have increasingly adopted an overall interpretative framework inspired by Marxist theory. Conflicts are understood to be adjacent to, and a necessary ingredient of, social change. However fruitful such a perspective has proven to be, it has tended to direct the scholarly gaze towards particular kinds of conflicts while leaving others aside. Given the alignment of conflicts and social change, research inspired by Marxist theory of conflict has tended to focus on contests on a collective, societal level.

Within the field of religious history, studies inspired by a Marxist understanding of conflict have given valuable insights into the role of churches and other religious organisations in aiding or opposing movements of change and liberation. Some scholars, most notably E.P. Thompson,1 have also seen religion as a major explicatory force. Yet the overall impact of Marxist theory has been to downplay the role of religion in understanding social change. This tendency has been most clearly seen in studies dealing with the so-called modern era.

In recent years, however, there has been a renewed interest in studying religion as a major cultural force and the origin of identity formation. This tendency is notable even in the studies dealing with supposedly ‘secular’ societies. Even though this gradual shift of attention cannot solely be explained by recent political events, the wars in former Yugoslavia, the terrorist attack of 9/11, the rise and fall of ISIS, and its tragic aftermath, have further underscored the need not to leave religion altogether out of the equation.

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Indeed, from a variety of perspectives religion is a tangible factor in many conflicts. We need only think of issues associated with freedom of religion and freedom of speech. Such conflicts often highlight the relationship between minority religious groups and majority culture (both secular and religious). We can also see how controversy follows in the wake of popular religious movements, often advancing notions that run counter to what is understood as dominating values of society. The role of religion also becomes visible when we consider the encounter between various identity constructs in both past and present societies. Clashes between such formative expressions can be seen in virtually every part of the globe. Far from being a mere remnant of the past, religion has shaped, for better and for worse, our ways of understanding ourselves and the society we live in. To a considerable extent we find religion at the very roots of our mindset.

With increasing recognition of how religion has contributed (and still contributes) towards the shaping of modern societies, the need to understand the ways in which churches, or other religious organisations, interact with society at large has gained a renewed sense of urgency. Focusing on Europe, we see clearly how the rise of industrialism, nationalism, secularism, liberalism and democracy triggered complex and radical reactions within the dominating churches, a majority of which were moulded to suit the needs and desires of an ancien régime. On the part of the churches alternative strategies had to be explored and developed in order to find a suitable place within rapidly changing societies. These responses by the churches had both profound cultural and political repercussions.

An increasing number of historians have focused on how escalating inter-confessional rivalry and an often heightened sense of contention between religious and supposedly secular values became a feature of modern Europe. Contention and opposition can be seen as integral parts of a peculiar understanding of society according to which divisions along confessional and/or denominational lines were seen as lying at the root of the social order. These conflicts can sometimes be understood within a paradigm infused with Marxist theoretical thinking; at other times such a framework tricks the contemporary scholar to leave certain peculiarities aside. With the inevitable idiosyncrasies of an edited volume, this book hopes to shed new light on a period during which religious strife and contention were not only seen as unwanted remnants of a trouble past, but as central expressions of identity and way of life.

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Catholic – Protestant – Secular: Interconnected Conflicts

Anti-Catholicism, nationalism and secularism belong to the interconnected conflicts treated in this volume. As a consequence of the internecine religious controversies that arose during the era of Reformation and the subsequent religious wars that were to haunt the European continent until the first half of the seventeenth century, aggression and a widespread suspicion towards the Roman Catholic church came to be dominating features among the Protestant nations. Such notions were often sharpened by the fierce condemnations of all brands of Protestantism issued by the Catholic hierarchy; fears of Catholic coups d’état triggered even more violent responses on the part of Protestant political elites. In countries such as Denmark, Sweden and England, anti-Catholicism was to be an integral part of nascent early-modern national sentiment. In these countries Catholics were often seen as alien elements threatening the fabric of society. Legal measures were put in place that severely restricted Catholic faith and practice within Protestant domains; to secede from Protestant national religion and to enter the Roman Catholic Church was an act that seemed similar to treason. Among the clergy, an anti-Catholic attitude was seen as a vital part of the Protestant creed. Sermons became a vehicle for the propagation of anti-Catholicism among the people at large. To a considerable extent, the fear of Catholicism often to be found among both political and ecclesiastical elites was echoed among the lower ranks of society, even though a later strand of research has demonstrated how fierce rhetoric did not exclude a peaceful inter-confessional coexistence on a day-to-day basis.2

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In predominantly Protestant countries enlightenment ideas of religious toleration and of natural law led to a gradual mitigation of rather severe religious legislation during the eighteenth century.3 The vision of the Catholic foe gradually receded into the background and, especially after the tumultuous events of 1789, new enemy images emerged. When it came to new measures of social outreach a new spirit of inter-Christian collaboration became visible in many religiously divided regions of Europe. Yet, increased religious toleration and further political reforms during the first half of the nineteenth century triggered conservative reactions. Measures that seemed to compromise the Protestant nature of society were often met with verbally ferocious expressions of ‘no Popery’. The rise of Roman Catholic triumphalism in the form of Ultramontanism only added to the ire of Protestant publics.

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To be sure liberal-minded reformers themselves were not immune to the lure of anti-Catholicism. For them Catholicism often seemed to be a symbol of the bigoted, hierarchical society they struggled to overcome. However, the luring dangers of Catholicism were not only to be found within the Papal Church. Even in countries of a manifest Protestant character, anti-Catholicism easily turned into a hostile attitude to everything associated with clerical, ‘priestly’, powers. Hence there are links between anti-clericalism and anti-Catholicism. For example, British anti-clericalism, originating from within the mental universe of Protestant dissent, could offer a scathing criticism of the tenets and position of the established Church.4 In contrast, in countries with a strong Catholic presence the struggle for a secular constitution often became imbibed with expressions of anti-clericalism and bitter opposition towards the power of the Roman Church. In France this resulted in the long-lasting conflict between two markedly different visions of society: secular republicanism and royalist Catholicism. In the end a radical separation of church and state ensued. The ideal of laïcité has been in the forefront of French religious politics since the Third Republic.5 Another well-known example of a similar kind of confrontation is to be found in the German Reich of Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898). Measures imposed to reduce the influence of the Roman Catholic Church within the recently unified German nation, especially during the pontificate of Pius IX (1792−1878), are still known under the heading Kulturkampf.6 In the Netherlands the opposition between Protestants and Catholics (and indeed the more liberal-minded) resulted in the emergence of separate, parallel, societies divided along politico-religious lines, so-called pillarisation (verzuiling).7 Inspired by scholars like Urs Altermatt, Karl Gabriel and Olaf Blaschke,8 Swedish historian Yvonne Maria Werner has adopted and further developed the concept of counter-culture to understand the position of above all the Roman Catholic Church within Nordic societies. In her research, Werner has successfully applied this concept to analyse the situation of growing, albeit marginalised, Roman Catholic communities in the Scandinavian countries.9 In her research she dealt with both a religiously motivated female counter-culture as well as so-called processes of ‘re-masculinisation’, in relation to nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century confessionalisation.10

Yet there were groups of people who did not easily fit into such a polarised framework or suffered severely from the antagonism that lay at its root. Anders Jarlert looks to the east of Europe in his chapter included in this book. The fate of the Masurian Lutherans in eastern Poland belong to the tragedies of modern Europe. This chapter monitors the various, and often contradictory, attempts to transform a group that many times escaped attempts at cultural and political classification.

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In spite of attempts to mobilise popular hostility towards the Roman Church, or to resort to images of a lurking Catholic danger, there is ample evidence to suggest that anti-Catholicism was receding or losing some of its former strength during the last decades of the nineteenth century. The secularisation of politics in most formerly Protestant nations rendered the language of anti-Catholicism increasingly out of date. Twentieth-century Christian ecumenism together with the more open accepting attitude that was demonstrated during Vatican II (1962−1965) effectively made formerly accepted expressions of inter-church vitriol seem like the slightly embarrassing remnants of a troubled ecclesiastical past. This is not to say that all expressions of anti-Catholicism have vanished, or have been relocated to a Protestant lunatic fringe. In the political landscape of today other fundamental divisions, lacking clear denominational connotations and divisions (such as those illustrated by the GAL-TAN scale), seem to be more relevant when trying to grasp underlying conflicts. Yet, anti-Catholic sentiment has a tendency to lay dormant in formerly Protestant nations. The election of John F. Kennedy (1917−1963) to the U.S. presidency was probably not the last occasion when anti-Catholic rhetoric was heard in public in a, so-called, Western country once again. With the rise and subsequent global dissemination of a militant conservative Evangelicalism, anti-Catholicism may once again reappear as a political force to be reckoned with.11 Hugh McLeod’s contribution to this volume gives another testimony to the continued importance of religious/religious-secular conflicts. He argues that there are repercussions of religious conflicts still visible within the field of historiography. His chapter offers a historiographical overview of recent research addressing the relationship between religion and the rise of modern sports. Historians have tended to put forward contradictory lines of argument when trying to explain their many times complex relationship. His analysis of this field of research reveals how the interpretation and evaluation of historical events is often influenced by the historian’s political or religious convictions.

Historiographical Perspectives

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Protestant anti-Catholicism constitutes in itself a vast field of research. We will here offer some national perspectives. For an overview of the secular-Catholic conflicts in nineteenth-century Europe a collected volume, edited by Christopher Clark and Wolfram Kaiser, remains the authoritative guide.12 Studies of British anti-Catholicism have been produced since the late 1960. The works of E.R. Norman, D.G. Paz, John Wolffe, Colin Haydon, Walter Ralls, C.Z. Wiener, Erik Sidenvall and others have revealed the varied nature of British anti-Catholicism.13 Even though British anti-Catholicism took various cultural expressions (in art, literature and popular festivities), present-day research tends to emphasise its importance in periods of political uncertainty. It is also evident that anti-Catholicism rose to the surface during times of perceived Roman Catholic ‘advances’. The political scene of what was to become Germany was of course radically different when compared to Britain, and hence anti-Catholicism came to have different subtexts. In particular the Kulturkampf of the Bismarck era has remained a particularly elusive phenomenon with different and overlapping meanings. Valuable studies are found in the works of, for example, Michael B. Gross, Olaf Blaschke, Claudia Lepp and Helmut Walser Smith.14 When it comes to the solidly Lutheran Nordic countries, studies of anti-Catholicism have been relatively sparse. Above-mentioned Swedish historian Yvonne Maria Werner has explored the nature of Nordic anti-Catholicism in a number of articles, thereby adding to our knowledge of the intersection between Protestant identity and nationalism.15

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Scholars dealing with the Kulturkampf have also mapped out transnational processes of anti-Catholicism, anti-clericalism and secularism across the European continent. Manuel Borutta and Lisa Dittrich offer comparisons and transnational studies involving Bismarckian Germany and states with a predominantly Catholic population –France, Spain and Italy. Borutta focuses our attention on how papal power became an international anti-symbol of modernity and paved the way for a discursive narrative of secularisation. Dittrich demonstrates how Vatican I (1869–1870), together with peculiar scandals in the Vatican, triggered a circulation of anti-clerical motives and images across national borders and fostered a largely shared European perception of anti-clericalism.16 In his contribution to this volume, Dennis Meyhoff Brink discusses in a similar way how anti-clerical satire, from the age of reformations to the nineteenth century, was connected to a discourse on citizenship. Such issues have a direct bearing on current conflicts evolving around the legitimate use of satire in European society.

Anti-Catholicism was also related to the dynamics and extension of popular Catholicism. Olaf Blaschke and Tine Van Osselaer have contributed with several studies, including their contributions to this volume, on the popular movements that took form around pilgrimages and new saints in mid-nineteenth-century Europe. These movements contributed to the coordination and homogeni-sation of Catholic believers that seemed to confirm the opinions and fears of their opponents.17 As Blaschke mentions in his contribution to this volume, Ultramontanism was first formulated as a pejorative term, but was from the mid-nineteenth century proudly employed by Catholics belonging to these popular movements. As Van Osselaer shows, these collective movements, seemingly contradictory, often managed to connect to the then current focus within Catholicism on subjective and emotional experiences, for example, though the cult of the Sacred Heart, within Eucharistic piety and as demonstrated in popular visits to stigmatics. Just as was the case with secular movements, they were transmitted and propelled across national borders by new media. A reflection of this devotional universe is found in Alexander Maurits’ contribution to this volume. In the Protestant tradition, the trade and commerce that surrounded different aspects of Catholic spirituality was regarded as something obnoxiously alien. In Lutheran Sweden the criticism of these aspects of Catholicism became an essential component of anti-Catholic rhetoric during the final decades of the nineteenth century. To Swedish Lutheran theologians such aspects of Catholic spirituality were regarded as superstitious and as ways for the Catholic clergy to deceive ordinary people.

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A gender perspective adds dimensions to our understanding of both devotional practices and the religious strife of modern Europe. Gendered language permeated the religious conflicts of the era. As is often the case, gendered language provides the means to rehearse, allocate and negotiate notions of power within any given society. As has been demonstrated by several of the scholars involved in the project Christian Masculinity –a paradox of modernity?, headed by Yvonne Maria Werner, to defend one’s faith was seen as an expression of ‘masculinity’; opponents, on the other hand, were portrayed as ‘feminine’. This overall pattern was repeated with endless variations. For example, towards the end of the nineteenth century notions of Swedish Lutheran masculinity were strongly associated with the act of overcoming religious/philosophical doubt and uncertainty. Men who withstood such a test were able to recast themselves in the form of a religious hyper-masculinity.18 Yet, the period also knew various expressions of ‘gender-bendering’; religion could provide the means with which boundaries of sex and of gender could be challenged and transgressed, temporarily or more long-lastingly. Van Osselaer’s chapter in this volume points at the alleged ‘gender shift’ that has often been linked to the stigmatic’s imitation of the body of the suffering Christ. The theme of going beyond traditional notions of gender returns in Inger Littberger Caisou-Rousseau’s study of nineteenth-century Swedish artist Therese Andreas Bruce (1808–1885).

During the past 200 years, motives deriving from Christianity have transformed into non-religious discourses through sacralisation of language, ritual practices and narrative plots. In the last contribution to the volume, Franziska Metzger demonstrates how discourses of apocalyptic memory were expressed in times of crises during the nineteenth century in art and popular novels. Chronological continuity, teleological narratives and synchronisation of different historical times were constructed on the basis of widely recognisable examples. Metzger’s contribution encapsulates something essential for this volume.

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In order to improve our understanding of topical issues relating to freedom of expression, nationalism, revivalism, gender issues and various anti-movements, it is clarifying to study their historical roots in the often interconnected conflicts. This is not least essential in a historical time that still seems to be governed by continuously accelerating change, but nevertheless is built on the historical experience of generations.

Sources

Altermatt, Urs, Katholizismus und Moderne. Zur Social-und Mentalitätsgeschichte der Schweizer Katholiken im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Zürich 1989.

Aston, Nigel & Matthew Cragoe (eds), Anticlericalism in Britain: c. 1500–1914, Sutton 2000.

Blaschke, Olaf (ed.), Konfessionen im Konflikt. Deutschland zwischen 1800 und 1970: ein zweites konfessionelles Zeitalter, Göttingen 2002.

Blom, J.C.H. & J. Talsma (eds), De verzuiling voorbij. Godsdienst, stand en natie in de lange negentiende eeuw, Amsterdam 2000.

Borutta, Manuel, Antikatholizismus: Deutschland und Italien im Zeitalter der europäischen Kulturkämpfe, Göttingen 2010.

Champion, J.A.I., The Pillars of Priestcraft Shaken: The Church of England and Its Enemies, 1660–1730, Cambridge 1992.

Clark, Christopher & Wolfram Kaiser (eds), Culture Wars: Secular−Catholic Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Europe, Cambridge 2003.

Dittrich, Lisa, Antiklerikalismus in Europa: Öffentlichkeit und Säkularisierung in Frankreich, Spanien und Deutschland (1848–1914), Göttingen 2014.

Gabriel, Karl, Christentum zwischen Tradition und Postmoderne, Freiburg 1994.

Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm & Klaus Große Kracht (eds), Religion und Gesellschaft: Europa im 20. Jahrhundert, Köln 2007.

Gross, Michael B., The War Against Catholicism: Liberalism and the Anti-Catholic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Germany, Ann Arbor 2004.

Haydon, Colin, Anti-Catholicism in Eighteenth-Century England, c. 1714−80: A Political and Social Study, Manchester 1993.

Jenkins, Philip, The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice, New York 2003.

Kaplan, Benjamin J., Divided by Faith: Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge, MA, 2007.

Lepp, Claudia, Protestantisch-liberaler Aufbruch in die Moderne: Der deutsche Protestantenverein in der Zeit der Reichsgründung und des Kulturkampfes, Gütersloh 1996.

Modéer, Kjell Å. & Helle Vogt (eds), Law and the Christian tradition in Scandinavia: The Writings of Great Nordic Jurists, London 2021.

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Norman, Edward Robert, Anti-Catholicism in Victorian England, London 1968.

Paz, Dennis G., Popular Anti-Catholicism in Mid-Victorian England, Stanford, CA, 1992.

Poulat, Emile, Liberté, laïcité: la guerre des deux Frances et la principe de la modernité, Paris 1987.

Ralls, Walter, ‘The Papal Aggression of 1850: A Study in Victorian Anti-Catholicism’, Church History 43:2 (1974), pp. 242–256.

Sidenvall, Erik, After anti-Catholicism?: John Henry Newman and Protestant Britain, 1845−c. 1890, London 2005.

Smith, Helmut Walser (ed.), Protestants, Catholics, and Jews in Germany, 1800−1914, Oxford 2001.

Thompson, E.P, The Making of the English Working Class, New York 1964.

Tjeder, David, ‘Crises of Faith and the Making of Christian Masculinities at the Turn of the Twentieth Century’, in Yvonne Maria Werner (ed.), Christian Masculinity: Men and Religion in Northern Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Leuven 2011, pp. 127–145.

Van Osselaer, Tine, The Pious Sex: Catholic Constructions of Masculinity and Femininity in Belgium, c. 1800−1940, Leuven 2013.

Van Osselaer, Tine, ‘Reform of Piety in the Southern Netherlands/Belgium’, in Anders Jarlert (ed.), Piety and Modernity: The Dynamics of Religious Reform in Northern Europe 1780−1920, Leuven 2012.

Werner, Yvonne Maria, ‘Between Secularization and Milieu Catholicism: Danish Converts and Scandinavian Catholicism in a Comparative Perspective’, in Ulf Görman (ed.), Towards a New Understanding of Conversion, Lund 1999.

Werner, Yvonne Maria, ‘ “The Catholic Danger”: The Changing Patterns of Swedish Anti-Catholicism 1850−1965’, in Yvonne Maria Werner & Jonas Harvard (eds), European Anti-Catholicism, pp. 135−148.

Werner, Yvonne Maria (ed.), Christian Masculinity: Men and Religion in Northern Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Leuven 2011.

Werner, Yvonne Maria & Jonas Harvard (eds), European Anti-Catholicism in a Comparative and Transnational Perspective, Amsterdam & New York 2013.

Werner, Yvonne Maria, Kvinnlig motkultur och katolsk mission: Sankt Josefsystrarna i Danmark och Sverige 1856–1936, Stockholm 2002.

Werner, Yvonne Maria, Katolsk manlighet: det antimoderna alternativet –katolska missionärer och lekmän i Skandinavien, Göteborg 2014.

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Werner, Yvonne Maria, ‘Liberal Theology and Anti-Catholicism in Sweden’, in John Wolffe (ed.), Protestant-Catholic Conflict from the Reformation to the 21st Century: The Dynamics of Religious Difference, Basingstoke 2013, pp. 226−254.

Werner, Yvonne Maria, Världsvid men främmande: den katolska kyrkan i Sverige 1873–1929, Uppsala 1996.

Wiener, Carol Z., ‘The Beleaguered Isle. A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism’, Past & Present 51 (1971), pp. 27–62.

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1E.P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class, New York 1964.

2For a useful introduction, see Benjamin J. Kaplan, Divided by Faith: Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge, MA, 2007, pp. 15−124.

3Kjell Å. Modéer & Helle Vogt (eds), Law and the Christian Tradition in Scandinavia: The Writings of Great Nordic Jurists, London 2021.

4Nigel Aston & Matthew Cragoe (eds), Anticlericalism in Britain: c. 1500–1914, Sutton 2000; J.A.I. Champion, The Pillars of Priestcraft Shaken: The Church of England and Its Enemies, 1660–1730, Cambridge 1992.

5See Emile Poulat, Liberté, laïcité: la guerre des deux Frances et la principe de la modernité, Paris 1987.

6See Michael B. Gross, The War Against Catholicism: Liberalism and the Anti-Catholic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Germany, Ann Arbor 2004.

7See J.C.H. Blom & J. Talsma (eds), De verzuiling voorbij: Godsdienst, stand en natie in de lange negentiende eeuw, Amsterdam 2000.

8Urs Altermatt, Katholizismus und Moderne: Zur Social-und Mentalitätsgeschichte der Schweizer Katholiken im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Zürich 1989; Karl Gabriel, Christentum zwischen Tradition und Postmoderne, Freiburg 1994, pp. 127−202; Olaf Blaschke (ed.), Konfessionen im Konflikt. Deutschland zwischen 1800 und 1970: ein zweites konfessionelles Zeitalter, Göttingen 2002.

9Yvonne Maria Werner, Världsvid men främmande: den katolska kyrkan i Sverige 1873–1929, Uppsala 1996.

10Yvonne Maria Werner, Kvinnlig motkultur och katolsk mission: Sankt Josefsystrarna i Danmark och Sverige 1856–1936, Stockholm 2002, pp. 9−17; Yvonne Maria Werner, ‘Between Secularization and Milieu Catholicism: Danish Converts and Scandinavian Catholicism in a Comparative Perspective’, in Ulf Görman (ed.), Towards a New Understanding of Conversion, Lund 1999; Yvonne Maria Werner, Katolsk manlighet: det antimoderna alternativet –katolska missionärer och lekmän i Skandinavien, Göteborg 2014; Yvonne Maria Werner (ed.), Christian Masculinity: Men and Religion in Northern Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Leuven 2011.

11Philip Jenkins, The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice, New York 2003.

12Christopher Clark & Wolfram Kaiser (eds), Culture Wars: Secular−Catholic Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Europe, Cambridge 2003.

13Edward Robert Norman, Anti-Catholicism in Victorian England, London 1968; Dennis G. Paz, Popular Anti-Catholicism in Mid-Victorian England, Stanford, CA, 1992; John Wolffe, The Protestant Crusade in Great Britain, 1829−1860, Oxford 1991; Colin Haydon, Anti-Catholicism in Eighteenth-Century England, c. 1714−80: A Political and Social Study, Manchester 1993; Walter Ralls, ‘The Papal Aggression of 1850: A Study in Victorian Anti-Catholicism’, Church History 43:2 (1974), pp. 242–256; Carol Z. Wiener, ‘The Beleaguered Isle. A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism’, Past & Present 51 (1971), pp. 27–62; Erik Sidenvall, After anti-Catholicism?: John Henry Newman and Protestant Britain, 1845–c. 1890, London 2005.

14Gross 2004; Blaschke 2002; Claudia Lepp, Protestantisch-liberaler Aufbruch in die Moderne: Der deutsche Protestantenverein in der Zeit der Reichsgründung und des Kulturkampfes, Gütersloh 1996; Helmut Walser Smith (ed.), Protestants, Catholics, and Jews in Germany, 1800−1914, Oxford 2001.

15Yvonne Maria Werner, ‘Liberal theology and anti-Catholicism in Sweden’, in John Wolffe (ed.), Protestant-Catholic Conflict from the Reformation to the 21st Century: The Dynamics of Religious Difference, Basingstoke 2013, pp. 226−254; Yvonne Maria Werner, ‘ “The Catholic Danger”: The Changing Patterns of Swedish Anti-Catholicism 1850−1965’, in Yvonne Maria Werner & Jonas Harvard (eds), European Anti-Catholicism in a Comparative and Transnational Perspective, Amsterdam & New York 2013.

16Manuel Borutta, Antikatholizismus: Deutschland und Italien im Zeitalter der europäischen Kulturkämpfe, Göttingen 2010; Lisa Dittrich, Antiklerikalismus in Europa: Öffentlichkeit und Säkularisierung in Frankreich, Spanien und Deutschland (1848–1914), Göttingen 2014.

17Blaschke 2002; Tine Van Osselaer, The Pious Sex: Catholic Constructions of Masculinity and Femininity in Belgium, c. 1800−1940, Leuven 2013; Tine Van Osselaer, ‘Reform of Piety in the Southern Netherlands/Belgium’, in Anders Jarlert (ed.), Piety and Modernity: The Dynamics of Religious Reform in Northern Europe 1780−1920, Leuven 2012.

18David Tjeder, ‘Crises of Faith and the Making of Christian Masculinities at the Turn of the Twentieth Century’, in Yvonne Maria Werner (ed.), Christian Masculinity: Men and Religion in Northern Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Leuven 2011, pp. 127–145.