Proceedings of the Xth Conference, Helsinki 2008
Edited By Martti Vainio, Reijo Aulanko and Olli Aaltonen
11. Micro-prosodic consonantal effects on macro-intonation 107
MICRO-PROSODIC CONSONANTAL EFFECTS ON MACRO-INTONATION Antti Iivonen Tapio Seppänen Kai Noponen Juhani Toivanen 1 Introduction: Macro and micro-prosody A well-known micro-prosodic factor, vowel openness degree, ceteris paribus, affects inherent higher or lower F0-levels of vowels (Lehiste, 1976; Di Cristo, 1978/1985; Meister and Werner, 2006). Unvoiced consonants cause interruptions and modifications in the fundamental frequency, which hamper the study of the intonation patterns. Therefore, utterances including unvoiced consonants are often avoided in the research of prosody. We present evidence how the unvoiced obstruents k, p, s, t and the approximant h besides the voiced consonants (resonants j, l, m, n, r, v) as well as the vowels a and i influence the pitch contours. The term macro-intonation can be understood paradigmatically: it is combined with the question about the form and number of intonation patterns of a language. It is an abstract notion, because the acoustic details of its realizations as F0 contours depend on the syllable and mora structure, number of words and word stress locations in the utterance concerned, among other things. 2 Macro-intonation of single-word utterances We concentrate on the question which kind of micro-prosodic effect consonants and vowels take on the height at the very beginning of the F0 contours (Initial Pitch) and on the height of the F0 peaks (Peak Pitch) (Figure 1). Our secondary interest is to discuss the consonantal effects on F0 later in words. The initial pitch height can vary much in utterances for functional reasons (for Finnish, cf. Iivonen, 1984). Therefore...
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