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(Post)transformational Migration

Inequalities, Welfare State, and Horizontal Mobility

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Edited By Marek Nowak and Michal Nowosielski

Perceived inequalities, such as the lack of a proper job or bad living conditions, can play the role of push factors that make people migrate. Apart from this, there are studies which focus more on relative deprivation, exacerbated by inequality, as a basic determinant of people’s mobility, and also some are focused on the influence of income inequality on migration. Such «structural conditions» are only a part of the story of migration, particularly because differences and inequalities are social facts, elements of the universal shape of modern open societies. Ultimately inequality, as more general departure point, can’t be merely an element of explanation, and it is important to remember that not only do «objective» social differences and the inequalities caused by them foster migration behaviour, but so do their social perceptions.

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Part IIThe Differing Contexts of Migration

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Part II The Differing Contexts of Migration 176 Konrad Miciukiewicz Migration and Asylum in Central Eastern Europe 177 Konrad Miciukiewicz Migration and Asylum in Central Eastern Europe: The impacts of European Integration Abstract: The paper looks at harmonization of immigration and asylum policies in the new Central Eastern European Member States of the EU with the Schengen Acquis, the new legacy of immigration and asylum, and the institutional practice towards new migrants. The author argues that the European integration process has been dominated by the deployment of repressive security measures, while admission policies in the NMS-10 have not been given sufficient legal, institutional, and financial support from the EU-15, and have remained underdeveloped. As a result, the NMS-10, where an effective Europeanized system of border controls and surveillance of migrants coincides with poor standards of international protection and the absence of progressive immigration policies, have become neither a “substantially safe” destination for asylum seekers nor an attractive geo-region for economic migrants. Keywords: migration; asylum; immigration control; Central Eastern Europe; European integration. Introduction Since the 1990s, Central Eastern European countries have seen large-scale movements of people, both documented and undocumented, as well as voluntary and involuntary migration. The pre-accession process, which had a decisive impact on shaping migration and asylum policies in the CEECs, took place at a time when the negative consequences of immigration were receiving increased attention, and Western European policy-makers were experiencing a grow- ing political imperative to strengthen control over international 178 Konrad Miciukiewicz migration, in the...

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