Edited By Karin Österman
Part V. Animal Models of Aggression
Part V Animal Models of Aggression __________________________________________________________________________________________ Correspondence should be addressed to D. Caroline Blanchard, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1993 East-West Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The Evolution of Aggression D. Caroline Blanchard1,2 and Robert J. Blanchard3 1Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA 2Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA 3Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA Evolutionary analyses of behavior begin with information indicating that the behavior in question is present, to varying degrees, in individ- uals within a species; that it can be analyzed in terms of antecedent conditions and probable outcomes in situations similar to those in which the species evolved; and that there is evidence of a genetic in- fluence on that behavior. Additional factors, such as relatively consis- tent sex or age-based modulation of that behavior may contribute to the specificity and rigor of analysis. For aggression, long regarded as an aberrant behavior, all of these conditions are met. Under a wide range of known conditions, aggression may be a highly adaptive re- sponse, for both the aggressive individual and its relatives. This paper examines the circumstances eliciting or facilitating aggression across species, with attention to factors such as resource competition, bodily threats to the individual, weapon systems, social structures, and sex differences. While the focus is on nonhuman mammals, application of information from such species may also...
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