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Indirect and Direct Aggression

Edited By Karin Österman

Indirect and Direct Aggression consists of 24 chapters written by distinguished scholars within the field of aggression research, covering indirect aggression, bullying in schools, adult bullying, and societal and biological aspects of aggression. Indirect aggression is the most typical form of aggression used by women in most cultures. It is an aggressive strategy that is carried out by means of social manipulation that enables the perpetrator to go unnoticed and thereby escape retaliation. Knowledge about indirect aggression and its mechanisms is crucial for all anti-bullying efforts, among children and adults alike. Although briefly covered in early research on human aggression, the study of indirect aggression originates, beginning from the mid-1980s, from a research group in Finland, lead by Professor Kaj Björkqvist of Åbo Akademi University. The book can be used as a textbook at university level.

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Part V. Animal Models of Aggression

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Part V Animal Models of Aggression __________________________________________________________________________________________ Correspondence should be addressed to D. Caroline Blanchard, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1993 East-West Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. E- mail: blanchar@pbrc.hawaii.edu The Evolution of Aggression D. Caroline Blanchard1,2 and Robert J. Blanchard3 1Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA 2Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA 3Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA Evolutionary analyses of behavior begin with information indicating that the behavior in question is present, to varying degrees, in individ- uals within a species; that it can be analyzed in terms of antecedent conditions and probable outcomes in situations similar to those in which the species evolved; and that there is evidence of a genetic in- fluence on that behavior. Additional factors, such as relatively consis- tent sex or age-based modulation of that behavior may contribute to the specificity and rigor of analysis. For aggression, long regarded as an aberrant behavior, all of these conditions are met. Under a wide range of known conditions, aggression may be a highly adaptive re- sponse, for both the aggressive individual and its relatives. This paper examines the circumstances eliciting or facilitating aggression across species, with attention to factors such as resource competition, bodily threats to the individual, weapon systems, social structures, and sex differences. While the focus is on nonhuman mammals, application of information from such species may also...

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