Edited By Jacek Fisiak and Magdalena Bator
Jerzy Welna (University of Warsaw) - Leal/real/viage or loyal/royal/voyage. On the distribution of the forms of loanwords from Norman and Parisian French in Middle English 303
Leal/real/viage or loyal/royal/voyage. On the distribution of the forms of loanwords from Norman and Parisian French in Middle English Jerzy Wena, University of Warsaw ABSTRACT Middle English borrowed extensively from both Central (Parisian) French and Norman French. The significant phonological differences between the two dialects of French were as a rule mirrored in the forms of English loanwords. The earliest borrowings represent the Norman type, while loanwords from the Parisian dialect began to come in larger numbers only in the 14th century. The present study is concerned with the distinction between Parisian [oi] and Norman [ei] and its variants as reflected in Middle English dialects. Special attention is paid to the phonological variation of forms reflecting Anglo-Norman le(i)al, re(i)al, viage vs. Parisian loyal, royal, voyage. It is essential to emphasise that some instances of variation in the Anglo-Norman forms (leial, lial, leal, leel/reial, rial, real etc.) originated on the French soil (cf. Pope 1952). The standard historical grammars (Luick 1940, Jordan-Crook 1974) devote little attention to this change. A more comprehensive account can be found in Diensberg (1985: 195-199), who confirms that the survival of leal-forms etc. was conditioned dialectally. The present study is an attempt to offer a more precise account of the regional conditioning of the variants of the three loanwords in question. The study is based on the Innsbruck corpus of Middle English prose of 2009, but the Oxford English dictionary and the Middle English dictionary are also consulted. KEYWORDS: Norman French; Central...
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