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Citizen Relationship Management

A Study of CRM in Government

Series:

Alexander Schellong

This study explores Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in government. Based on an interdisciplinary literature review and multiple-case study design, a model of Citizen Relationship Management (CiRM) is developed and discussed. The case studies explore the perceptions of CRM/CiRM by administrators, elected officials and consultants as well as its implementation and impact on the municipal level and in a multijurisdictional environment in the United States. Although the explorative part of the study focuses broadly on a theoretical conceptualization of CiRM, the immediate empirical referent of research are the 311 initiatives in the City of Baltimore, the City of Chicago, the City of New York and Miami-Dade County. Thus, the results help administrators and researchers to convey the idea and challenges of 311 well. The study shows that CRM is to a certain extent only partly able to make novel contributions to currently active reform movements in government. In addition, the study’s findings support the idea that CiRM provides the means to a different kind of public participation.

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Acknowledgements....................................................................................................... IX List of Figures ..............................................................................................................XV List of Tables ............................................................................................................XVII List of Abbreviations ................................................................................................. XIX 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 Background and scope of the problem ................................................................ 2 1.2 Definition of terms............................................................................................... 4 1.3 Orientation of the research................................................................................... 5 1.4 Significance of the Study..................................................................................... 5 1.5 The empirical referent of the study...................................................................... 7 1.6 Organisation of the dissertation ........................................................................... 7 2 From Customer Relationship Management towards citizen-oriented government .... 9 2.1 Customer Relationship Management................................................................... 9 2.1.1 Customer satisfaction ............................................................................... 13 2.1.2 Differentiating customers ......................................................................... 14 2.1.3 Customer relationships ............................................................................. 15 2.1.4 Customer proximity.................................................................................. 17 2.1.5 CRM processes ......................................................................................... 18 2.1.6 Customer interaction................................................................................. 19 2.1.7 CRM systems............................................................................................ 20 2.1.8 CRM in private enterprises....................................................................... 21 2.1.9 CRM in government ................................................................................. 23 2.2 Citizen-oriented reforms in public administration............................................. 26 2.2.1 New Public Management ......................................................................... 27 2.2.2 Critical remarks on NPM.......................................................................... 30 2.2.3 Total Quality Management....................................................................... 32 2.2.3.1 Critical remarks on TQM ............................................................. 35 2.2.3.2 TQM in government..................................................................... 36 2.2.4 Electronic Government............................................................................. 39 2.2.4.1 Central elements of ICT ............................................................... 42 2.2.4.2 Enacting technology in government............................................. 44 2.2.4.3 Citizen-orientation and eGovernment .......................................... 47 2.3 The Citizen Public Administration Relationship ............................................... 49 2.3.1 Citizen as customer/consumer .................................................................. 52 XII 2.3.2 Critical remarks on the citizen as customer/consumer ............................. 55 2.3.3 Citizens’ preferences and expectations of public services and administration ........................................................................................... 59 2.3.4 Administrative contacting as public participation.................................... 62 2.4 Summary ............................................................................................................ 65 3 Methodology and Data Analysis ............................................................................... 67 3.1 Research method................................................................................................ 67 3.2 Data collection and data sources........................................................................ 70 3.2.1 City of Chicago......................................................................................... 73 3.2.2 City of Baltimore ...................................................................................... 74 3.2.3 City of New York ..................................................................................... 74 3.2.4 Miami-Dade County ................................................................................. 75 3.3 Data analysis ...................................................................................................... 75 3.4 Limitations...

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