Socio-Cultural Innovation at Work
Welfare and Democracy. Rainer Greca
79 Welfare and Democracy Rainer Greca Social security systems in Europe mirror the rich social, economic, political and cultural currents between Nord Kap and Cabo São Vincente. Steps toward resto- ration and modernisation are layered like sediment so that superficial similarities cover up fundamental differences in the basic structure. In the same manner, concepts of a mixed economy of welfare or welfare to work were introduced throughout Europe in the last century, but lie in different columns and networks of the social care tradition. An affinity among the European welfare regimes be- comes obvious, when they are compared with those from the former communist countries or Asia. (Jones: 1993,206) The phrase “welfare state” itself was invented in Europe and is dedicated to several independent authors: Adolf Wagner used it in Germany the first time in 1854 (“Wohlfahrtsstaat”). In Scandinavia it was a common terminology during the 1930s (Kaufmann: 1996, 31). William Temple, Archbishop of York, de- scribed by it in 1941 the Labour Britain: “In place of the concept of the Power State we are led to that of the Welfare State”. As a accepted basic definition the following interpretation can be taken: “The Welfare State is the institutional out- come of the assumption by a society of legal and therefore formal and explicit responsibility by a society for the basic well-being of all of its members.” (Gir- vetz: 1968, 512) 1. Antecedents of modern welfare regimes If there is such a thing as a “first stone” of...
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