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Philosophical and Religious Sources of Modern Culture


Edited By Jacek Grzybowski

Europe is the community of nations which, in the favorable conditions of a small yet extremely diversified continent, took over and developed the legacy of Greco-Roman civilization transformed and enriched by Christianity. Philosophy, theology, liturgy, religion, national culture and tradition are still manifestations of this heritage. Europe is not merely a region or geographical location. It is an idea that expresses cultural and social ideals. The nature of Europeanness is not defined by race or place but by freedom and culture in the broad sense. Latin Europe created a sphere of civilization. Though ridden by contrasts and differences, not merely an organic unity was established but also a unity of a spiritual kind by accentuating and merging of values all Europeans have in common. This was also made possible by Christianity whose ethos came to pervade a multiplicity of socio-cultural phenomena.


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Rev. Maciej Bała: Comte-Sponville’s spirituality without God. A new foundation of modern culture?


Comte-Sponville’s spirituality without God. A new foundation of modern culture? Rev. Maciej Bała Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw (CSWU) The Faculty of Christian Philosophy Introduction Religion is a phenomenon that continually inspires philosophical reflection. The end of religion or the death of God have on various occasions already been pro- claimed, yet the problem of an Absolute, of faith, continues to be an important issue in every man’s world view, conjuring attitudes of affirmation or negation. Hence the need to subject religion to critical evaluation, characteristic of philo- sophical cognition. The philosophy of religion, as the discipline concerned with this task, tries to make use of rational reflection to determine what religion is (what the essence of religion is), whether its object (God) exists and what He is, in what way is religious cognition given to man, in what the religious existence of man consists, and, frequently, what the functions of religion are (e.g. socio- logical, psychological). Philosophy of religion should not be equated with theol- ogy, which is a systematic reflection on the content of a specific religious tradi- tion, presupposing faith or another kind of acceptance of the tenets of that reli- gious tradition. It should also not be confused with religious philosophy, which takes its inspiration from religion, drawing rational conclusions from it, although remaining detached from any particular religious tradition. Atheism denotes a position negating the existence of God. The theoretical and practical varieties of atheism are usually distinguished.1 The first involves a doctrine,...

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