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A Model of Human Motivation for Sociology

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Jacob Alsted

Many macro-sociologists have insufficient understanding of the roots of human motivation and this seriously hampers the effort to build theoretical models of society, social organisations and social change. The aim of this work is to remedy this deficiency. In this book, a model of motivation is constructed in order to demonstrate how it can improve our understanding of society. The aim here is an integration of concepts from psychology and sociology. Furthermore, it is the aim to clearly demonstrate that such a model adds new insights to our understanding of society. It can enrich key concepts used for analysis of meso- and macro-level phenomena. The author argues that the model of motivation can increase our understanding of, on the macro-level, the history of the state and, on the meso-level, dynamics in organisations.

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List of Tables 9

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List of Tables 1. Various Assumptions on Human Motivation I 28 2. Main Levels and Sublevels in Social Theory I 30 3· Types of Societal Structures Used by Selected Authors I 36 4· Major Organisation Configurations Within Each Type of Structure I 40 5· Various Definitions of Social Change I 44 6. Various Definitions of the Driving Force of Evolution I 49 7· Schein's Five Dimensions of Organisational Culture I 54 8. Various Measures of Organisational Change I 6o 9· Kernberg's Description of the Development of Psychic Structure I 104 10. Freudian Phases of Development I u6 11. Stages of Life According to Erikson I 117 12. The Correspondence Between Levels of Defence and Age I 121 13. Kernberg's Timing of Psychological Development I 123 14. Scales of Psychological Capacities I 133 15. The Structure of Groups I 160 16. Defensive Mechanisms in Organisations I 169 17· Communication in the Splitting Organisation I 171 18. Communication in the Repressing Organisation I 173 19. Communication in the Integrating Organisation I 174 20. Differences Between "Class Room" and "On-Location" Development I 179 21. The Structure of Society I 183 22. Defensive Mechanisms in Societies I 194 This page intentionally left blank

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