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Education, Child Labor and Human Capital Formation in Selected Urban and Rural Settings of Pakistan


Abdul Salam Lodhi

Education is essential for human resource development and sustainable socio-economic development of a society, as it can facilitate economic growth through the broader application of knowledge, skills, and the creative strength of a society. The other positive and long-term outcomes of education include the reduction of poverty and inequality, improvement of health status and good governance in the implementation of socio-economic policies. Keeping in view the role that education through human capital formation can play in the development of Pakistan where the population of the children below 14 years old is about 35 percent of the total population; this study aims at delineating the factors that are obstructing the educational activities of the children below the age of 14 years. Furthermore, the main research interest in this study was to see how pecuniary and non-pecuniary factors are impeding the process of human capital formation. The results indicate that variables such as parental education and perceptions of secular and non-secular education, role of mother in domestic authority, believe in tribal norms, religiosity of the head-of-household, child age and gender, and proximity to school are playing a significant role in the choice of childhood activities.


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First of all, I offer my heartfelt gratitude to ALLAH Almighty, who created the universe, bestowed mankind with the knowledge and wisdom to search for its secrets and to serve humanity, and blessed me with the courage and capability to aptly contribute to the existing knowledge. Many thanks are due to the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan, under the faculty development program of Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences (BUITEMS), Quetta, Pakistan, who provided me with this opportunity to develop my knowledge and skills in research. I am also indebted to the Center for Development Research (ZEF), for providing all necessary facilities throughout the period of my study and field research in Bonn University and financial support for my stay in the last tenure of my study. This dissertation was made possible due to the support, guidance and critical feedback of many people in both within Germany and beyond. Of these, I am particularly grateful to my supervisor Professor Joachim von Braun for his valuable and constant guidance in the completion of this study. I remember that on the first day after returning from field work, I had my first meeting with Professor Joachim von Braun, and he was gracious enough to accept me for supervision. From that day until now whenever I have met him, I have been extremely impressed by his encouragement and valuable thoughts. I also extend my heartiest gratitude to my second supervisor, Professor Michael-Burkhard Piorkowsky, for accepting me to work under...

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