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Education, Child Labor and Human Capital Formation in Selected Urban and Rural Settings of Pakistan

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Abdul Salam Lodhi

Education is essential for human resource development and sustainable socio-economic development of a society, as it can facilitate economic growth through the broader application of knowledge, skills, and the creative strength of a society. The other positive and long-term outcomes of education include the reduction of poverty and inequality, improvement of health status and good governance in the implementation of socio-economic policies. Keeping in view the role that education through human capital formation can play in the development of Pakistan where the population of the children below 14 years old is about 35 percent of the total population; this study aims at delineating the factors that are obstructing the educational activities of the children below the age of 14 years. Furthermore, the main research interest in this study was to see how pecuniary and non-pecuniary factors are impeding the process of human capital formation. The results indicate that variables such as parental education and perceptions of secular and non-secular education, role of mother in domestic authority, believe in tribal norms, religiosity of the head-of-household, child age and gender, and proximity to school are playing a significant role in the choice of childhood activities.

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AIC Akaike Information Criterion BBS Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics BIC Bayesian Information Criterion BRAC Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee BUITEMS Balochistan University of Information Technology Engineering and Management Science FHHH Female Head-of-Household FIE Future Income Expectations FATA Federally Administrated Tribal Areas HHH Head-of-Household HSC Higher School Certificate GOP Government of Pakistan ILO International Labor Organization IPEC International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor KPK Khyber Pakhtunkhwa LEAPS Learning and Educational Achievement in Punjab Schools MHHH Male Head-of-Household MLE Maximum Likelihood Estimation MNL Multinomial Logit MNP Multinomial Probit NEC National Education Census PSLM Pakistan Social Living Standards Measurement PMDG Pakistan Millennium Development Goals OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OLS Ordinary Least Square OLR Ordered Logistic Regression RCP Religious Compatibility Perception SSC Secondary School Certification SOR Stereotype Ordinal Regression xvi SIMPOC Statistical Information and Monitoring Program on Child Labor UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNDP United Nation Development Program 2SLS Two-Stage Least Squares

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