7.1 Essay 1: Definition of Variables Age: Age is measured as the difference between the year of consideration and the year the executive was born. Socioeconomic background: Based on the biographical information, each executive was grouped into one of three socioeconomic groups depending on his background: upper class, middle class, and working class. Specifi- cally, executives were identified as having an upper-class background if their pa rents were entrepreneurs or held managerial positions in business or public office, a middle-class background if their parents were white-collar workers or public employees, or a working-class background if their parents were blue-collar or skilled manual workers. To illustrate the classification procedure, table 25 gives an overview of typi cal indicators about the social origin from the biographical information that is used for classification. Table 27: Typical indicators about socioeconomic background of top executives Socioeconomic back- ground Typical indicators Upper class Entrepreneur, board member, factory director, manager, mayor, undersecretary, landowner Middle class Engineer, teacher at secondary school, salaried employee, shopkeeper, master craftsman, fore- man Working class Railway worker, haidresser, potter, „grew up in modest or simple or ordinary circumstances“ Religion: When reported in the biography, the faith of the executive is classi- fied as either Protestant or Catholic. 120 Education: For each executive, the level of education and, for university graduates, the field of study is reported. Also, the age at which the executive finished his highest level of education and started his career is reported. The level of education is measured by the...
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