Language Change in an Anglophone Community in Japan
7.1 Introduction In this chapter, the results of linguistic data analysis are presented separately ac- cording to the relevant variable and informant nationality—English, American or New Zealander—with each result focussing on the effects of the informants’ social networks. Results of five consonants—word-final intervocalic (t) (7.2), word-medial intervocalic (t) (7.3), postvocalic (t) (7.4), non-prevocalic (r) (7.5) and /-t,d/ deletion (7.6)—and three vowels—TRAP (7.7), BATH (7.8) and THOUGHT (7.9)—will be reported in the following sections respectively. Other linguistic variables—intrusive (r), START, LOT and CLOTH vowels—which have not shown any statistically significant results will be briefly mentioned later (7.10). The results of combined variables of vowels (e.g., TRAP and BATH, BATH and START, CLOTH and LOT/THOUGHT) will be presented in the relevant sections. The presentation of results for each linguistic variable consists of four parts: a brief introduction; a discussion of real-time change in the choice of variants; the social network effects on the linguistic changes; and, a discussion of the re- sults. First of all, the number of tokens and percentage rate for each variant of the linguistic variable will be presented. The percentage shown with the token num- ber is simply calculated from the total number of tokens obtained from all the informants from each country and, therefore, is not going to be used for statisti- cal analyses in sections to follow because the percentage scores of individual informants will be used instead for statistical analyses using SPSS. In the section on...
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