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Offshore Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage

An International Environmental Law Perspective

Friederike Marie Lehmann

The technology of offshore carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is likely to be deployed on a commercial scale soon. CCS technology could be used to limit global temperature rise to less than 2°C above the pre-industrial level. However, such projects entail many environmental risks, and their effectiveness for the mitigation of climate change is disputed. This book tries to clarify open legal questions regarding European offshore CCS projects in the context of international and regional maritime and climate protection law as well as relevant European legislation. Taking the remaining scientific uncertainty into account, this book concludes that the permission and encouragement of offshore CCS projects is highly problematic from an international environmental law perspective.

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List of Abbreviations

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AAUs Assigned Amount Units Barcelona Convention Convention for the Protection of the Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean CBD United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity CCS Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage CCS Directive Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the geological storage of carbon dioxide CDM Clean Development Mechanism CERs Certified Emission Reductions CITL Community Independent Transaction Log CO2 Carbon Dioxide COP Conference of the Parties COP/MOP Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to this Protocol Dumping Protocol Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft EC European Community EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone EGR Enhanced Gas Recovery EHR Enhanced Hydrocarbon Recovery EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EIA Directive Directive on the Assessment of the Effects of Certain Public and Private Projects on the Environment Environmental Liability Directive Directive 2004/35/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 on environ- mental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage EOR Enhanced Oil Recovery ERUs Emission Reduction Units XVIII ESPOO Convention Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context ETS Emissions Trading Scheme ETS Directive Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community EU European Union EU ETS European Emissions Trading Scheme FRAM Framework for Risk Assessment and Management of Storage of CO2...

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