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Existence, Sense and Values. Essays in Metaphysics and Phenomenology

Edited by Sebastian Tomasz Kołodziejczyk


Sebastian Kołodziejczyk

This collection of essays is about some of the most fundamental issues connected with metaphysics, theory of values and philosophy of man. In the first part of the book, the author is trying to answer questions concerning both the methodological status of metaphysics and the main subject-matter of metaphysical investigations. He convincingly argues that metaphysics is an indispensable domain of research that may help us to understand the world and what we experience in much better manner. In the next part, the author draws our attention to the problem of existence and the ways we experience it. The question on existence is definitely the central issue of this entire volume, also in the next two parts of the book where the author focuses on values, their origins and status as well as their relationship to human nature. What is particularly intriguing about this collection of essays is its unique and fruitful combination of different methodologies and traditions in one rich and persuasive picture of the most basic philosophical problems.


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Part IV: Metaphysics of Human Being


Part IV Metaphysics of Human Being Man as ̕Ἀρχή It is the common opinion of all the historians of philosophy that “ἀρχή” is one of the most ambiguous philosophical terms. In fact, it is. But the ambiguity of “ἀρχή ” does not mean a lack but rather a richness of its sense, as well as reveals the richness of reality caught by this sense. The Greek philosophical terms did not pretend to construct a model of reality – as something new in comparison with it. They wanted, as they want for today, to clarify reality in itself. The aim of this paper is to propose some reflections according to a supposition that from the earliest Greek philosophy the human being was interpreted as ἀρχή or was at least with ἀρχή strictly connected. Let’s consider this supposition on the basis of some texts. τὸ γάρ αὐτὸ νοεῖν ἔστιν τε καὶ εἶναι – “For the same thing can be thought as can be.”1 In these deep words Parmenides reveals the identity of Being in both these aspects: of its being (εἶναι) and of its being an object of thinking. Being “thinkable,” being an object of and for thinking belongs, therefore, to the essence of Being itself. But this essence, strictly speaking: this aspect of its essence, emerges and becomes actual only if someone thinks. Is it not the human being who does it? “To be an object of thinking” means also “to have rationality.” Therefore man is ἀρχή of the rationality of being and owing to man the fundamental statement: “it is the same thing to think and to...

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