The Use of Example Markers in English and German
4 The uses of example markers in German
In German the example markers are essentially used in the same way as in Eng- lish – but of course the differences in syntax of the two languages as well as dif- ferences in the use of relational markers and especially the propositional connec- tives result in significant differences. Generally, the rules also applies in German that example markers mark the list of examples in each case as being non- exhaustive; also, if they are used immediately after another relational expression they basically operate parasitically and thus function in this position as discourse markers. Equally, the condition derived from the non-exhaustiveness rule ap- plies in German: example markers can only be used when there is a possibility of things being otherwise. In German too, anteposition in front of the scope do- main is the neutral and natural position of example markers; the example mark- ers can also migrate using specific syntactical and intonational devices. But it is here that we find major differences – especially concerning postposition with selections – as a result of the specific syntactical properties of these two lan- guages, which have been partly discussed already (p.23ff.). Since of the three uses – exemplification, selection, argumentation – the first exhibit the greatest overlapping in both languages, we will first discuss the exemplifications, which are relatively clear-cut in German as well as in English. 4 The uses of example markers in German 124 4.1 Complete or almost complete overlapping: exemplifications In German too, the example markers anteposed in enumerative appositions func- tion as...
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