2 Origin of Racial Exclusion and Inclusionin Sudan
61 2 Origin of Racial Exclusion and Inclusion in Sudan Essentially, the current conflicts in Sudan originated from early power in the state that constructed divisive racial settings of the territorial population into ‘Blacks’ and ‘Browns’, ‘Muslims and Christian Animists’, ‘Slaves and Frees’, Africans and Arabs, ‘Animists and pagans’151 and “Northerner and Southerner”.152 These racial categories are void of political comprehensive meaning among the territorial cit- izens; instead, they simply represent racial exclusion and inclusion. According to Guba and Lincoln, exclusion is a coherent body of performance that power pursues in setting imbalances of national institutions, which can be “understood in reference to objectives and purposes attached” to its setting.153 The body of the first political setting of public institutions in Sudan was based on the social exclusion and inclusion of ‘us’ and ‘them, ‘we’ and ‘they’ ‘theirs’ and ‘ours’.154 The first phase of this setting commenced in 1821, when Muhammed Ali Pasha, Viceroy of Egypt ordered his army to invade the ‘Nilotic Sudan’ in order to access Black slaves for the slave trade and to fill the ranks of his army. His ‘Turco-Egyptian Rule’ modernised local administrative sys- tems, under Hakimdar (General Governor) in its four provinces of Dunqulah, Berber, Sinnar and Kordofan all in the Northern Sudan. The regime established a system of education, a monetary system, post and telegraph services and laws in courts to the exclusion of the South, Nuba Mountains, Ingessana Hills and Darfur. Those marginal regions remained as mere sources of slaves.155 Under...
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