Applying an Argument-Based Approach
Chapter 4: Validity Evaluation
According to the International Language Testing Association (ILTA), one of the three basic considerations for good testing practice in all situations, independent of test use or context, is for test developers to “provide information which allows valid inferences to be made. Validity refers to the accuracy of the inferences and uses that are made on the basis of the test scores. If, for example, the test purports to be measuring the ability to use English in business communication, the infer- ences based on the test score are valid to the degree that the test does in fact meas- ure that ability” (ILTA Guidelines for practice, 2007, p. 1). Since SLA researchers use tests to make different kinds of claims, it is very important to evaluate these claims thereby providing evidence for their justification and accuracy. This section briefly reviews the history of approaches to validity conceptualiza- tion and investigation and introduces the argument-based approach that is ap- plied in the empirical part of the publication for validating the Elicited Imitation Test for Russian. 4.1 earlier conceptualizations of validity (Trinity model) The current understanding of validity evaluation and its methodology is not pos- sible without looking at the main milestones of conceptual and methodological development of the notion of test validity. Through the 1970s, validation practices in educational measurement in general and language testing, in particular, were based of the trinity view of validity, with the criterion, content, and construct models considered as different types of validity, which could be applied...
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