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About Russia, Its Revolutions, Its Development and Its Present

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Michal Reiman

The author analyzes modern Russian history from a new perspective. Due to the ideological heritage of the XIXth and XXth centuries, the social settings of the sociopolitical history of the USSR (1917–1945) have not been fully identified. Detailed examination of ideological and political concepts shows that the revolution of 1917 became not a middle class, proletarian movement, but rather a plebeian one. The misjudgment by the new power enabled growth but caused tremendous losses of human lives and material damages. Socialization of economy and strict centralization led to a new social structure and established terror as an instrument for social reorganization. WWII revealed the necessity of a correction of these developments, but the events of the Cold War circumvented any further considerations.

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4. The Stalin’s “second” Revolution

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The 1928 Crisis and Stalin’s Conflict with the Party “Rightists” We have dwelt in detail on matters related to Stalin and his inner circle’s conflict with the opposition because the dispute was of a strange character� At the time, Stalin’s economic policy—setting aside the substantial issue of autarky—came close to the opposition’s on several points� Already by 1927, Stalin had probably decided to significantly boost the pace of industrialization� Testimony to this is his decision to implement a number of large industrial construction projects which, at a later point, became the basis of the first five-year plan� But after the party congress came to a close, the actual start of construction fell prey to Stalin’s decision to hide from the congress the failure of the buy-up of grain, which acutely threatened provisioning for cities and industrial develop- ment� He did not wish to start a fight with the party’s ‘Rightists’ before the con- gress and before he could deal with the opposition� The situation which resulted could only be dealt with by extraordinary measures: grain purchases in October- December 1927 were only half of what they had been in the same period the year before�76 As we have noted, in many provincial towns, stocks of supplies covered needs for only a few days� The crisis of the Soviet economy and the existing system of social relation- ships came to an immediate head in the early days of 1928� But the underlying issues reached, in fact, much deeper...

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