The Question of God in Modern Period Philosophy
Keywords: negative theology, theism, pantheism, panentheism, deism, fi deism, atheism, agnosticism, theological optimism. Despite the fact that the characteristic features of the deviation of modern philosophical thinking from the Middle Ages means turning away from the central posi- tion of theology and the question of God in reasoning, the issue of God and His knowability has remained important in the modern era. Some philosophers (e.g. F. Bacon) reckoned that God should not be the subject of philosophy, and we should instead focus our reﬂ ec- tions on nature. In spite of the diversity of attitudes, generally it can be said that in the modern period God becomes an object of thinking in a new concept – He is an object which can be examined through the examina- tion of nature, or possibly, our own nature. Analyses of God’s knowability and existence, ho - wever, undergo various forms in the modern period: from unknowability, to the complete subordination 14 of God to reason; from His inevitable existence, to his hypotheticality, or even denial. Nicolaus Cusanus thematises God through his reﬂ ec- tions on mathematical inﬁ nity. Cusanus realizes that the attributes commonly attributed to God, such as inﬁ - nitely gracious, eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, are an application of the inﬁ nity attribute to God (Cusa, 1990, 7 – 10). But what is the inﬁ nite? Unlike ancient thinkers, who understood the inﬁ nite as incompleteness Cusanus perceives it positively – as a limited expression of any quality. However, the limit of the inﬁ nite...
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