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Prolegomena to the Study of Modern Philosophy



This book is divided into nine chapters trying to draw attention to the various aspects of the understanding of God, to the question of the individual, the ideal state arrangement, and the question of freedom (free will) as well as of history. Special attention is paid to the issue of cognition, the question of reason and sense, as well as language and the issue of a system in philosophy. The chapters are arranged to show the historical characteristics of the issues with an introduction of the key approach and ideas with references.


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Philosophy of History and the History of Philosophy as a Problem of the Modern Age and Classical German philosophy


59 Philosophy of History and the History of Philosophy as a Problem of the Modern Age and Classical German philosophy   Keywords: cyclicality, linearity, teleologicality, spirality, atomic nature of history   The professionalization and précising of vocabulary and reasoning in various fi elds, along with the establishment of specialised independent disciplines of philosophi- cal inquiry are characteristic features of the (especially later) modern period and, in particular, the philosophy of the Enlightenment. The development of knowledge brought about the formation and establishment of phil- osophical disciplines, such as epistemology, ontology (Wolf’s term), aesthetics (The Scottish School of style, A. G. Baumgarten and J. J. Winckelman), as well as the creation of dictionaries, textbooks and encyclopaedias (Chambers’ Cyclopaedia, the French project Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des science, des arts et des métiers), philosophical journals (Acta Philosophorum  (Halle, 1715– 26), Der philosophische Büchersaal  (Leipzig, 1741-44; Phil- osophical Magazine), and also philosophical societies. An 60 interest in the issue of history, in the history of philoso- phy in particular, is a  characteristic feature of modern philosophy which distinguishes it from its predecessors. In the early eighteenth century, the fi rst lexicons of the history of philosophy were created (Brucker’s Historia Critica Philosophiae, 5 vol. (1742–44); J. Bühle’s Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie, 8 vol. (1796–1804); D. Tiede- mann’s Geist der spekulativen Philosophie von Thales bis Berkeley, 6 vol (1791-97); and G. Tennemann’s Geschichte der Philosophie, 11 vol. (1789–1819 . Philosophers began to feel the need not only for a precise...

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