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Introduction to the Study of the History of Epistemology



The text is structured in chronological and ideological order and presents nine basic types of the classical perception of the problem of knowledge through an analysis of the atomistic theory of perception, Platonism, Aristotle’s doctrine, scepticism, rationalism, sensualism, Kant’s theory, phenomenological-existential, pragmatic, and (post) analytical perceptions. The proposed work aspires to be an introduction (not a complete presentation, neither in the number of types, nor in a full interpretation) and a basis for the reader’s interpretations which is reflected in the structure of the text.


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Epistemology of British Sensualism


  Keywords: sensory data, externalism, associanism, probabilism, coherence   The traditional opponent of the rationalistic approach to knowledge is empiricism (the opinion that all knowl- edge comes from experience) and especially sensual- ism, which stresses the priority and necessity of sen- sory knowledge. The history of sensualism goes back to Democritus and Aristotle. However, probably the most prominent representative of this approach to knowledge was the British sensualism of John Locke, George Berke- ley and David Hume. The subject of epistemology should be examination of sources and origin of our beliefs, opinions and convic- tions. (Locke 1836, 2). Sensualists believe that the inevita- ble and main source of knowledge is sensory perception. They bring back to life the peripatetic motto “Nihil est in intellectu quod non prius in sensu” (Aquinas Thomas De veritate, q. 2 a. 3 arg. 19) opposing Descartian rationalists 88 and Cambridge Platonists. They believe that our intellect is an unwritten table – tabula rasa – at the moment of birth. Locke was convinced that if inborn ideas existed they would have to be in every intelligent individual, which does not seem to be confi rmed by experience (Locke 1836, 9). According to Locke, small children, oli- gophrenics, and primitive nations do not have the ideas of God, “I”, nor laws of logic. Locke documented this by the fact that small children and others do not use the pronoun “I” to refer to themselves from birth, they often contradict themselves, and they do not know logic laws or the idea of...

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