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Introduction to the Study of the History of Epistemology



The text is structured in chronological and ideological order and presents nine basic types of the classical perception of the problem of knowledge through an analysis of the atomistic theory of perception, Platonism, Aristotle’s doctrine, scepticism, rationalism, sensualism, Kant’s theory, phenomenological-existential, pragmatic, and (post) analytical perceptions. The proposed work aspires to be an introduction (not a complete presentation, neither in the number of types, nor in a full interpretation) and a basis for the reader’s interpretations which is reflected in the structure of the text.


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Analytical and Post-analytical Epistemology


  Keywords: analysis, fact, defl ation, verifi cationism, holism   Representatives of the modern analytical epistemology (mostly G. Frege, B. Russell, G. E Moore, L. Wittgenstein, R. Carnap) believe that a  “philosophical explanation of our thinking can be achieved by philosophical explana- tion of language and […] that a complete explanation can be achieved only this way” (Dummet 1998, 4 – 14). The basic assumption of their opinion is a  consequence of Kant’s belief that “thoughts without content are empty; and intuitions without concepts are blind” (Kant 1996, 107, resp. CPR, B75). If we want to analyse knowledge, we have to analyse language, especially the relationship between our terms and what they refer to, or what they are meant to refer to. The classic idea of modern knowledge suggests that language enables us to grasp the reality (either directly or through sensory representations). This means that 132 there is some sort of reality on one side of knowledge and there are language forms, which are meant to express it, on the other side. Because reality external to humans can be infl uenced only minimally, or not at all, it is obvious that analytically oriented philosophers turn their attention to variables that can be infl uenced. According to representational theory, it is possible to purify all mental representations from useless additives and confusions. This is possible only through the most exact observations, which, in terms of their content, are divided into the simplest possible elements of experi- ence and by control of all relevant variables...

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