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Metaphysics

Selected Problems of Metaphysics and Ontology

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Renáta Kišoňová

The presented text offers a basic overview of the terms and topics of the very wide philosophical discipline called metaphysics. The text includes, besides an overview of individual problems, reflections to consider and recommended literature. Readers will become familiar with the basic terms (metaphysics, ontology, existence, being), with the metaphysics of archaic nations, Parmenides’s approach to understand being as The One, the understanding of time and events of the Greeks, the problem of categories according to Aristotle and Kant, the problem of intuition and fundamental ontology.

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10. Metaphysics and Problem of Intuition. Henri Bergson

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One of the key problems which stretch across the his- tory of metaphysics and epistemology is the problem of intuition. More space will be devoted to it in this chap- ter by analysis of the approach of Henri Bergson. Henri Bergson tried in his works to create a  philo- sophical concept which would be based on accuracy. Philosophy, or traditional metaphysics, which he criti- cises, lacks accuracy. According to him, the traditional philosophical systems are not “tailored” to the reality in which we live. “They are far too big for it” (Bergson, H.: La pensée et le mouvant, 1969). These systems would fi t into a world where there are not, besides people, any plants, animals and people do not need to sleep and eat, dream, the energy would not be consumed in this world but on the contrary, it would increase but the sys- tems that are criticised by Bergson are so abstract that 72 they can involve everything both possible and impos- sible. Bergson based his metaphysics on a  new approach to the evolution of life which took into account real time, or better to say, duration, passage, dynamics, and change. Bergson says that it is natural that science is not interested in duration since its function is to put the world together for us where we can cover the eff ects of time due to the simplicity of actions. Philosophy should approach duration in a  diff erent way. Bergson believes the whole problem of abstract philosophical systems...

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