Keywords: Tao, Wu wei, Yin and Yang, paradox, metaphor 9.1 Tao Te Ching (or Dao De Jing) Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism are considered the three most signiﬁ cant systems of thought in China. Throughout history, they inﬂ uenced each other, there were even attempts to combine them. The term Tao- ism is an umbrella term for several schools of thought, which have common themes. The most distinctive text of the system was the Dao De Jing, whose authorship is traditionally accredited to Laozi and Zhuangzi, a text that is named after the author Zhuangzi. In present times, it is believed that both texts were being created for a long time and several authors participated in their creation. Texts do not refer to each other and they were included into the common Taoist corpus in the 3rd cen- tury A.D. 92 The common signs of Taoism include the develop- ment of the Tao path, the emphasis on metaethics in reﬂ exions on moral, the development of concepts on the return to naturalness and spontaneity and also the indirect and non-confrontational style of writing, which does not appeal to rationality in the ﬁ rst place, but to intuition and imagination, by using analogies, elements of poetry, humour and self-irony. From the point of ontological models, the Taoist philoso- phy is monistic and process-based. There is no search for some prime origin, which was typical for Greek think- ing, but there is rather a search for laws of process, there was no attempt to...
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