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The Axiology of Friedrich Nietzsche

Nicolae Râmbu

In his unmistakable style, Friedrich Nietzsche approached the issue of all classes of values, not only the moral ones. The author presents Nietzsche as a philosopher of values par excellence by analysing vital and economic values, religious and political values, moral and aesthetic values, and, in addition to all these, value in general, with all its implications for human life and humanity. Nietzsche had an instinct for value, a faculty for feeling the finest nuances of the phenomenon of value, and a passion for knowing the axiological universe. These were extraordinary and have rarely been seen in the history of culture.
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IV. Nihilism as Axiological Illness



1. The Savior as idiot

Nihilism as a cultural phenomenon is associated with a form of madness or with other illnesses of the human spirit, or is considered an illness itself. The nihilist is not in his right mind or suffers from a strange illness that cannot be diagnosed or treated by any physician. These activities are the responsibility of another type of physician, a ‘physician of culture’ as Friedrich Nietzsche said.

The nihilist, who knows by certitude that there is nothing behind any recognized and traditional values, has been seen in history as a lunatic, barbarian, out of his mind, or idiotic. In the following lines I will refer to this final state, using as a starting point Nietzsche’s strange opinion about the psychological type of Jesus. Nietzsche polemized with Renan, who ‘has introduced the two most inappropriate concepts possible into his explanation of the Jesus type: the concept of genius and the concept of the hero (héros)’.111 Nietzsche’s criticism has very strong fundaments. Jesus’ psychological features are opposed to those of the hero.

“And even more, what a misunderstanding is the word ‘genius’! Our whole concept, our cultural concept, of ‘spirit’ has no meaning whatever in the world in which Jesus lived. Spoken with the precision of a physiologist, even an entirely different word would still be more nearly fitting here than the word idiot.”112

Oly a misunderstanding caused the word ‘idiot’ to be...

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