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Metaphysics

Selected Problems of Metaphysics and Ontology

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Renáta Kišoňová

The presented text offers a basic overview of the terms and topics of the very wide philosophical discipline called metaphysics. The text includes, besides an overview of individual problems, reflections to consider and recommended literature. Readers will become familiar with the basic terms (metaphysics, ontology, existence, being), with the metaphysics of archaic nations, Parmenides’s approach to understand being as The One, the understanding of time and events of the Greeks, the problem of categories according to Aristotle and Kant, the problem of intuition and fundamental ontology.
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1. Introduction

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The presented text offers a basic overview of the terms and topics of the very wide philosophical discipline called metaphysics. Questions and the consequent answers, which are connected with metaphysics, are of several kinds and they are extraordinarily well elaborated in the history of philosophy. It is not possible to mention all of them in a text of this kind and it is also not possible to provide a deep analysis of all the individual topics. After all, to cover the metaphysics of Thomas Aquinas would deserve a text the length of this entire text. However, I believe that this text will help students of philosophy and of pedagogy who teach this kind of topic. The text includes, besides the overview of individual problems, reflections to consider and recommended literature. The reader will become familiar with the basic terms (metaphysics, ontology, existence, being), with ← 7 | 8 → the metaphysics of archaic nations because this topic is represented to only a small degree in the themes of classical textbooks of metaphysics and ontology and therefore close attention will be paid to it. Another topic is Parmenides’s approach to understanding of being as The One. This theme smoothly turns into another one: the understanding of time and events of the Greeks. Further, the problem of categories according to Aristotle, Kant, and the modern approaches are dealt with. Then follows the topic concerning the criticism of metaphysics, which was opened by Kant. The reader will be then acquainted with the traditional metaphysical...

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