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From Humanism to Meta-, Post- and Transhumanism?


Edited By Irina Deretić and Stefan Lorenz Sorgner

The relationship between humanism, metahumanism, posthumanism and transhumanism is one of the most pressing topics concerning many current cultural, social, political, ethical and individual challenges. There have been a great number of uses of the various terms in history. Meta-, post- and transhumanism have in common that they reject the categorically dualist understanding of human beings inherent in humanism.
The essays in this volume consider the relevant historical discourses, important contemporary philosophical reflections and artistic perspectives on this subject-matter. The goal is to obtain a multifaceted survey of the concepts, the relationship of the various concepts and their advantages as well as their disadvantages. Leading scholars of many different traditions, countries and disciplines have contributed to this collection.
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Nenad Cekić, University of Belgrade - Humanism, State and Freedom: Nozick’s Minimal Humanism?


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Nenad Cekić

University of Belgrade

Humanism, State and Freedom: Nozick’s Minimal Humanism?

A common understanding of the concept of humanism is in many senses unclear. The first impression is that this concept must be “maximal” in its content. The underlying notion is that humanism is a value, which at all costs must be defended, theoretically or otherwise. This kind of humanism we could label as maximal or ideal humanism. There is no doubt that humanism is a value, but the real question is: what kind of value? One possible interpretation is maximal or radical humanism. This point of view implies that humanism is an essential or even supreme goal. However, in the philosophical tradition, we can probably find a much more significant and less demanding form of humanism. That is minimal humanism, which is an important part of philosophical and political theories.

First, it is worth mentioning that any kind of humanism is incomprehensible without some notion of humanity. Essentially, any concept of humanity presupposes some kind of conception of man. Of course, we can see a man as a subject of moral virtues. Virtues are ideal values that must be reached in moral life. They are at the same time character traits. If we see an individual’s life as a path to the goal of an ideal of humanity, then we are dealing with a position that I shall call radical or maximal humanism. Another option is to...

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