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Causal Ubiquity in Quantum Physics

A Superluminal and Local-Causal Physical Ontology

Raphael Neelamkavil

A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly «non-causal» processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the «non-causal». If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, «probabilistic causality» is a merely epistemic term.
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Chapter 8. Interpretations of Important Results in Quantum Physics


I take up here some general notions of hidden variables theory of QM that are useful for our discussion of causal realism. I do not study many specific varieties of the hidden variables interpretation; and it is impossible to study the originators with their original works on the respective type of interpretation developed there. I do not claim here any exhaustiveness. My aim is only to prepare the way for discussing some of the most recent double slit experiments and EPR experiments and drawing some general conclusions useful for our purpose.

Consider the givenness of observables in QM and their eigenstates. An eigenstate is the dynamical state whose state vector (‘wave function’) is an eigenvector (called ‘eigenfunction’) of an operator which corresponds to a specified physical quantity. An eigenstate of the energy operator (Hamiltonian operator) with a definite stationary value for the energy is called an energy state. How to interpret the value of an observable, if the state of that system is not an eigenstate of that observable? Michael Readhed176 discusses this question along with the three historically most important answers attempted for it: i.e., hidden variables-, propensities and potentialities-, and Copenhagen interpretations.

The hidden variables interpretation may be conceived to be a causal interpretation, but the two are not identical:

[Q]uantum mechanical ‘hidden variables’ were originally proposed to be variables that determine the values of measurable quantities but are not themselves measurable. A ‘hidden-variable’ quantum theory contains such variables. The Causal...

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