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New Insights into Slavic Linguistics


Edited By Jacek Witkos and Sylwester Jaworski

This volume presents a number of contributions to the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Slavic Linguistics Society held in Szczecin, Poland, October 26–28. The largest number of articles address issues related to the (morpho)syntactic level of language structure, and several papers describe results of recent research into different aspects of Slavic linguistics as well. The current volume proves conclusively that Slavic linguists make a remarkable contribution to the development of various theoretical frameworks by analysing linguistic evidence from richly inflected languages, which allows them to test and modify contemporary theories and approaches based on other types of data.
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Sorting out-to and što: Bulgarian and Macedonian Relative Markers


Catherine Rudin

Wayne State College

1. Introduction

Despite their very close relationship, Bulgarian and Macedonian are often surprisingly different in the details of their grammars. In this paper I examine one area of divergence: the status and behavior of their relative markers. Both languages have an invariant suffixed element which occurs only on relative wh-words, not interrogative ones: -to in Bulgarian and što in Macedonian. Compare the corresponding questions and relative clauses in (1a-b) and (2a-b):

At first glance the two languages appear completely parallel: questions contain a bare wh-word, while relative clauses contain a wh-word with the extension -to or što. However, -to and što actually behave quite differently, both in relative clauses and in other constructions, suggesting that they do not share the same syntactic status. Deeper theoretical questions of the syntactic identity of što and especially –to are the subject of ongoing work in progress, e.g. Franks and Rudin (to appear). ← 317 | 318 → In the present paper I simply describe the usage of -to and što and briefly discuss possible analyses of each.

I start by presenting the facts of što and -to in relative clauses in Macedonian (section 2) and Bulgarian (section 3). Section 4 expands the discussion to constructions other than relative clauses. In section 5 I consider two competing analyses of što and conclude that it is a complementizer. Section 6 concerns competing analyses of -to, whose correct analysis is much less...

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