Korea and Beyond
A Study on the Assimilation of Qing Military Technology in Chosŏn during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries – Kang Seok Hwa
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A Study on the Assimilation of Qing Military Technology in Chosŏn during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Kang Seok Hwa1 Translated by Dennis Wuerthner
In the late sixteenth century and during the first half of the seventeenth century, Chosŏn Korea waged all-out wars against Japan and Qing China. Yet it was Qing China’s attacks to which Chosŏn Korea had to surrender and which ultimately led to a shift in sadae-relations from the Ming to the Qing. With regard to cultural transfer, Qing culture was at first deliberately ignored and demonized in post-war Chosŏn. However, as mutual transfer and contacts increased, the high standards of Qing culture were gradually acknowledged, and this eventually led to its broad importation.2 Until now, studies on the subject have dealt mainly with the changing understanding of the foreign in Chosŏn Korea, the amount of cultural goods imported from the Qing and the influence of Western science entering the country via Qing China. Although hostile post-war relations came to an end and serious conflicts did not arise, Chosŏn made preparations for a second Qing attack even until the early eighteenth century by taking all sorts of defensive measures, such as, for example, maintaining military organizations and training systems, reconstructing regional defense networks, improving and developing weaponry and rebuilding massive fortifications. Much research has already been carried out in this area, although scholars have thus far mainly focused on analyzing the...
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