The Case of Polish Children in Sweden
Chapter 1 The phonological system
Polish children in Sweden often manifest deficiencies in their Polish phonological system.108 This particularly applies to the system of fricative and affricate consonants, since a clash of the elaborate Polish affricate/fricative system (12 phonemes) with the simple Swedish system of only three voiceless sibilants /s/, /ɕ/, /ʂ/ causes serious delays, and sometimes even change of order, in the acquisition of the consonants. For example, a 9-year-old child has only four fricative sibilants /s/, /z/, /ɕ/, /ʑ/ (lacking all affricates and a number of alveolar consonants, though having the voiced/voiceless contrast):
a) s z ɕ ʑ
Despite having the affricates /t͡s/ /d͡z/ (along with the dental fricatives /s/ and /z/), the idiolect of another, 7-year-old, child lacks a series of alveolar and palatal consonants:
b) s z
A 13-year-old child’s consonant system includes both the fricatives and the affricates, as well as the voiced/voiceless contrast, yet it lacks a number of alveolar consonants:
c) s z ɕ ʑ
t͡s d͡z t͡ɕ d͡ʑ
Another idiolect (of an 11-year-old) lacks a series of palatal consonants despite the well-developed sets of dental and alveolar consonants:
d) s z ʂ ʐ
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