Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and continues to be a public health concern in many countries. China made huge progress in the control of Schistosomiasis japonica, aiming at the elimination of the disease from many previously endemic areas. This book presents a scientific investigation into the practical implementation of the Chinese national control strategy at the grass root level. It focusses on availability and composition of human resources for control and on performance of sero-diagnostic tests needed for case detection and surveillance. The main message of this book is that effective control and elimination of Schistosomiasis are feasible, but high levels of support for control need to be sustained to prevent resurgence of this disease.