The book explores the nature of Chechen society and Chechen ethno-psychology, the emergence of Chechen nationalism, and the predominantly violent relationships between Russia and the Chechens throughout modern history in order to better explain the most recent periods of confrontation. It concentrates on the second Russo-Chechen campaign and subsequent terrorist attacks in Moscow and Beslan and the spreading of violence throughout the North Caucasus. The book draws on extensive research and includes an introduction by Anatol Lieven. This is the first book to assess the most recent violence in Chechnya in the wider context of cultural, social and political changes in the North Caucasus and Russia. The study enlightens such key phenomena for understanding the ongoing violence as the North Caucasian version of Jihadism, Caucasophobia and Chechenophobia in contemporary Russia, paying attention to Moscow’s controversial policies of Normalisation in Chechnya. The author also investigates the situation of Chechen resistance and the expansion of the conflict into the neighboring areas of the North Caucasus.