Contents: The ru - from early times to the beginning of the twentieth century – Hu Shi’s «Shuo ru» – Criticism of Hu
Shi’s «Shuo ru» – After Hu Shi: variations on the wang guan shuo – Other recent theories on the origins of the ru
– The Erudites (boshi) until the early Han dynasty – The execution of 212 B.C. – The ru during Emperor Gaozu’s
reign – The ru under Emperor Wu’s rule.