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The Uruguay Round Results

A European Lawyers' Perspective- Proceedings of an International Conference held at the College of Europe, Bruges


Jaques H.J. Bourgeois, Frédérique Berrod and Eric Gippini Fournier

More prolonged than any former cycles of multilateral trade negotiations, the Uruguay Round will be remembered as the starting point of a new world trading environment. The agreements signed in Marrakesh in 1994 herald a «second generation» trade discipline, which follows a «first generation» dominated by bilateralism, and precedes a «third generation» where environmental and labour problems are issues which may figure on the multilateral trade negotiation scene. The creation of the World Trade Organisation, the concept of a «single undertaking» and the new General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) are only some of the more salient features of a myriad of improvements and developments encompassing all areas of international trade. The WTO agreement has been described as «a democratic charter for world trade».
The European Union, as a leading partner in a global economy, was one of the most interested parties in securing the successful conclusion of the Uruguay Round. Paradoxically, high unemployment and slow growth caused the spectre of protectionism to loom throughout the negotiation process, yet those factors should have spurred the movement towards trade liberalisation.
The reflections contained in this book are the result of an international conference held at the College of Europe, Bruges, in November 1994. Academics, trade officials and private practitioners analyse the implications of the Uruguay Round Agreements not only from a legal perspective, but also from an economic, political and social perspective. Detailed legal analysis, together with short comments and prospective insights, are all present in the contributions.
Contents: Jacques H.J. Bourgeois: The Uruguay Round Results from a European Lawyers' Perspective: An Introduction - Frédérique Berrod/Eric Gippini Fournier: The Common Institutional Framework of the New World Trade System - Hugo Paemen: The Significance of the Uruguay Round - Jacques Pelkmans: The Economic Significance of the Round - Jacques Leflon: Uruguay Round Comments: A View from UNICE - Frieder Roessler: The Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization - Pieter-Jan Kuyper: The New WTO Dispute Settlement System: The Impact on the Community - Paolo Mengozzi: The Marrakesh DSU and its Implications on the International and European Level - Hjalte Rasmussen: The Institutions of the World Trade Law after the WTO confronted with some of the Legacies of the Past - Frédérique Berrod: The Evolution of the Rules Affecting Trade in Goods: An Introductory Note - Mark Koulen: The New Anti-Dumping Code through its Negotiating History - Ivo Van Bael: The 1994 Anti-Dumping Code and the New EC Anti-Dumping Regulation - Gérard Depayre: Subsidies and Countervailing Measures after the Uruguay Round: An Overview - Christopher Norall: Impact of the New Rules on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures - Thiébaut Flory: The Agreement on Safeguards - Marco C.E.J. Bronckers: Voluntary Export Restraints and the GATT 1994 Agreement on Safeguards - Edmond L.M. Völker: The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade - Reinhard Quick: The Agreement on the Technical Barriers to Trade in the Context of the Trade and Environment Discussion - Wim Keijzer: GATT Agreement on Rules of Origin: its Purpose and Implications from a European Community Perspective - Edwin Vermulst: Rules of Origin in the Future: Selected Issues - Eric Gippini Fournier: GATS. Introductory Note - Julian Arkell: The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Liberalisation Concepts, Structures and Modalities - Tania Friederichs: Some Comments on GATS - Ian Wilkinson: The Uruguay Round and Financial Services - Giorgio Sacerdoti: Some Remarks on the Financial Services: Evaluation and Perspective - Karl F. Falkenberg: The Audiovisual Sector - Eric Morgan de Rivery: Unresolved Issues in the Audiovisual Sector and the US/EC Conflict - Ralf Scheibach: Foreign Direct Investment - Jacques Steenbergen: The WTO and Monetary Policy - Dominique Carreau: The Uruguay Round Negotiations Confronted by the Monetary Phenomenon - Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann: Report on Committee I (Trade in Goods) - Paul Demaret: Report on Committee II (Trade in Services) - Christiaan W.A. Timmermans: The Implementation of the Uruguay Round by the EC - Willy De Clercq: Closing Address.