Within the performance measurement theme, this book contributes a new decision-oriented perspective to evaluate the efficiency of organizations. This perspective defines an efficient organization as the one which attains the rationality in the operating process to generate its desired values. From this angle, the book identifies the pitfalls regarding the input-output specification in bank efficiency assessments using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models. It introduces the Decision-oriented Performance Measurement framework grounded in management rationality concepts as a solution to avoid these pitfalls. For empirical evidence, the book presents a goal-oriented DEA efficiency analysis of German savings bank sector.