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Die Evolution der Kulturfähigkeit

Beiträge zu einer Kritik des ethnologischen Kulturbegriffs

Heinzpeter Znoj

Worin besteht die menschliche Kulturfähigkeit, und wie hat sie sich im Lauf der menschlichen Evolution herausgebildet? Was bedeutet die Kenntnis dieser biotischen Grundlagen der Kultur für die Interpretation bestehender kultureller Erscheinungen? - Diese Verbindung ethnologischer und biologischer Fragestellungen problematisiert den ethnologischen Kulturbegriff und einige zentrale Positionen der klassischen ethnologischen Kulturtheorien. Die Arbeit zeigt auf, dass es in der Ethnologie des 20. Jahrhunderts eine wachsende Tendenz gibt, ihre ursprünglich idealistische theoretische Begründung durch eine naturwissenschaftliche abzulösen. Sie versteht sich als programmatischer und inhaltlicher Beitrag zu diesem Übergang.
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Chapter Four: “The Middle World”

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J U Jacobs University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban Writing from a Middle World: Perspectives on, and from, South Africa Introduction In his acceptance speech for the CNA Prize for his novel Waiting for the Barbar- ians in 1979, J.M. Coetzee asked the question whether one can “call South Af- rican literature in English a national literature” (in Kannemeyer 2012: 356). He concluded that, in relation to the metropolitan centres of Western Europe and North America, it could at best only ever be a provincial literature – but that this did not mean that it was inferior, he said: “A provincial literature is not necessar- ily minor. Russian literature of the age of Dostoevsky and Tolstoy is provincial and major” (ibid. 356–357). In this essay I would like to reconsider this question, with reference to three South African writers each of whom is recognised as a major national – and international – literary figure: the Afrikaans poet, Breyten Breytenbach, who has won every prestigious Afrikaans literary award, but whose prose works are mostly in English, and the Nobel laureates, Nadine Gordimer and J.M. Coetzee himself. I would like to compare their relations to the coun- try of their birth, and show how each of them imaginatively inhabits a “middle world” in texts that travel between and across nations and cultures, including those of Central and Eastern Europe. Breyten Breytenbach and inter-nationalism Breyten Breytenbach first left South Africa for Europe in 1960. In 1975 he re- turned on an underground political mission, was arrested, and...

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