From Sound to Meaning in Context

Studies in Honour of Piotr Ruszkiewicz

by Alicja Witalisz (Volume editor)
©2014 Others 284 Pages


This volume is a collection of papers approaching the phenomenon of language from a variety of perspectives. Scholars in phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicology, historical linguistics and translation studies share the results of their research. They invite the reader on a journey into the multifaceted and complex world of human language, moving from the study of sound through the description of structure to the analysis of meaning. The volume has been brought together to honour Professor Piotr Ruszkiewicz from the Institute of Modern Languages of the Pedagogical University of Cracow, a linguist and academic lecturer.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the Book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Piotr Ruszkiewicz’s selected publications.
  • Tabula gratulatoria
  • Abbreviations
  • The Relationship between Phonology and Phonetics: Eugeniusz Cyran
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Sound system, phonology and phonetics
  • 2.1. Phonology
  • 2.2. Phonetics and phonetic interpretation
  • 3. Sandhi voice assimilation in Cracow-Poznań Polish
  • 4. Some consequences of Laryngeal Relativism
  • References
  • Consonants at Domain Edges: Government-based Considerations of the Selected Phenomena in Slavic Languages: Anna Bloch-Rozmej
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Syllable structure and melodic representation in Government Phonology
  • 3. Syllable structure in Slavic languages
  • 4. A government-based analysis
  • 5. The laryngeal specification of consonants in Slavic languages
  • 5.1. Voice oppositions: Basic facts and the GP interpretation
  • 5.1.1 The word-medial context
  • 5.1.2 The right edge of the word
  • 5.2. A government-based account of neutralization
  • 6. Conclusion
  • References
  • Vocalic Double Agents in the Phonological System of South Welsh: Anita Buczek-Zawiła
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Data
  • 3. Double agent 1: [ i ]
  • 4. Double Agent 2: [a]
  • 5. Conclusion
  • References
  • Why Not Strict CV? A Few Critical Remarks on CV Approach to Stress and Rhythm: Tomasz Ciszewski
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Empty nuclei and the ‘visibility’ for stress
  • 3. Strict CV and stress: Polish and English
  • 4. Conclusion
  • References
  • Morphological Cues to English Word Stress Acquisition by Polish Learners: Andrzej Porzuczek
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Word stress in English
  • 3. Word stress acquisition
  • 4. The objectives of the present study
  • 5. Stimuli
  • 6. Participants and procedure
  • 7. Data analysis
  • 8. Results
  • 9. Discussion
  • 10. Conclusion
  • References
  • Polish Singulative Derivation in a Cross-linguistic Perspective: Bogdan Szymanek
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Singulatives: definition and characteristics
  • 3. Polish singulatives as a semantic extension of the diminutive
  • 4. The condition on singulative derivation
  • 5. Some Slavic parallels and contrasts
  • 6. The suffix -in: another singulative marker?
  • 7. Analogy between singulative nouns and semelfactive verbs: suffix -ną-
  • 8. Conclusion
  • Sources
  • References
  • Klik, Klikać, Klikalność: Morphological Adaptation vs. Derivation of Loanwords: Alicja Witalisz
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Approaches to the ‘morphological adaptation’ of loanwords
  • 3. Problematic issues
  • 4. Stages and mechanisms of loanword morphological assimilation
  • 4.1. Morphological adaptation of loanwords
  • 4.1.1. Suffix attachment
  • 4.1.2. Suffix replacement
  • 4.1.3. Suffix/free morpheme deletion
  • 4.2. Inflection of loanwords
  • 4.3. Word-formation of loanwords
  • 4.3.1. Derivation (affixation)
  • 4.3.2. Compounding
  • 4.3.3. Clipping
  • 5. Conclusions
  • Sources
  • References
  • Blends, Acronyms, and Nonce Words: A Cognitive Grammar Account: Henryk Kardela
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Grammar as a context-determined continuum of linguistic units
  • 3. Blends in cognitive grammar
  • 4. Acronyms and nonce formations
  • 5. The Current Discourse Space and the analyzability potential scale
  • 6. Conclusion
  • Sources
  • References
  • How Was the Woman Created? English Man – Woman and Polish Mężczyzna – Kobieta in the Biblical Story of the Creation – A Cognitive Study of Word-formation as Image Creation: Agnieszka Gicala
  • Sources
  • References
  • The Morphological Structure of Colour Terms and the Evolution of the Colour Lexicon in Polish: Danuta Stanulewicz
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Basic and non-basic colour terms
  • 2.1. Berlin and Kay’s (1969) study 74
  • 2.2. Modifications of Berlin and Kay’s 1969 study
  • 3. Polish basic and non-basic colour terms
  • 4. Selected morphological features of Polish colour terms 76
  • 4.1. Colour adjectives
  • 4.2. Colour adverbs
  • 4.3. Colour nouns
  • 4.4. Colour verbs
  • 4.5. Other derivatives
  • 5. Morphological classification of Polish colour adjectives
  • 6. The evolution of the Polish colour lexicon
  • 7. Conclusions
  • Sources
  • References
  • Interactions of Word-formation, Syntax and Context. The Case of the Polish Denominal Adjective Aksjologiczy/a/e ‘Axiological’: Michał Post
  • 1. Goal and scope
  • 2. Syntactic contexts of the noun aksjologia ‘axiology’ and the adjective aksjologiczny/a/e ‘axiological’ derived from it
  • I. Noun aksjologia ‘axiology’ in the function of Head
  • II. The adjective aksjologiczny/a/e ‘axiological’ in the function of Modifier
  • 3. Functional-semantic interpretation of the phrases aksjologia lingwistyczna ‘linguistic axiology’ and lingwistyka aksjologiczna ‘axiological linguistics’
  • 4. The evolution of the views on the relationship between linguistics and philosophical axiology
  • 5. Conclusion
  • References
  • Early Modern English Non-pronominal Self-compounds: A Few Questions
  • 1. Compound or phrase?
  • 2. Impossible compounds?
  • 3. Self an anaphor?
  • Sources
  • On the Origin of Evil and Its Competition with Bad in Middle English
  • 0. Aims and scope
  • 1. OE yfel
  • 2. ME bad
  • 3. Good and evil vs. good and bad in prose
  • 3.1 North
  • 3.2 South Eastern
  • 3.3 West Midland
  • 4. Good and evil vs. good and bad in poetry
  • 4.1 East Midland
  • 4.2 West Midland and Southwest
  • 5. Conclusions
  • Sources
  • References
  • The Constructionalization of Because in Late Middle English
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Causal conjunctions in Old English and Early Middle English
  • 2.1 Old English causal conjunction forðon (ðe)
  • 2.2 Middle English for (þat)
  • 3. The etymology of because
  • 3.1 Prepositional phrases with the noun cause in Anglo-Norman
  • 3.2 Anglo-Norman and Middle English bilingualism
  • 4. The stages of grammaticalization of because in English
  • 4.1 Preposition
  • 4.2 Conjunction
  • 5. The competition between because and forcause
  • 5.1 Preposition for (the) cause of
  • 5.2 Conjunction for (the) cause (that)
  • 6. Conclusion: constructionalization of because
  • Sources
  • References
  • On the Evolution of Prepositional Subordinators Expressing Negative Purpose in English: The Case of Enaunter
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Grammaticalisation of enaunter
  • 3. Discussion
  • 4. Conclusion
  • Sources
  • References
  • The English Do-support and the Multiple Spell-out
  • 1. Introductory remarks
  • 2. Introducing do-support
  • 3. Phase and multiple Spell-out
  • 4. Verb movement
  • 5. The role of do-support in the derivation
  • 6. Conclusions
  • References
  • A Landscape with the Translator Figure
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Temporal investigations into translation
  • 3. Strategic analysis of Górnicki’s translation metatexts
  • 1) Category of analysis: Cultural awareness
  • 2)Category of analysis: Cultural distance
  • 3) Category of analysis: ST – TT relation
  • 4) Category of analysis: Concrete for abstract
  • 5) Category of analysis: Censorship and moral judgement
  • 6) Category of analysis: Understanding another point of view
  • 7) Category of analysis: The strategy of polonisation
  • 8) Category of analysis: Language enrichment
  • 9) Category of analysis: Translation loss/gap
  • 4. “The Translator – the key figure of the twenty-first century”
  • 5. Conclusion – drawing the socio-psychological landscape of translation
  • Sources
  • References


With this volume the Institute of Modern Languages of the Pedagogical University of Cracow honours Prof. Dr. Piotr Ruszkiewicz, our mentor, colleague and friend, and congratulates him on the triple anniversary he celebrates in 2014. Piotr Ruszkiewicz began his adventure with English studies in 1964 at the University of Warsaw, where in 1974 he received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy based on a dissertation entitled Modern Approaches to Graphophonemic Investigations in English. In 1984, on publishing a monograph on Aspects of Reflexivization in English, Piotr Ruszkiewicz was awarded the academic title of Doctor of Letters in English linguistics (habilitation) by Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. In 1998, the book Morphology in Generative Grammar: From Morpheme-based Grammar to Lexical Morphology and Beyond. A Study of Selected Models of Morphological Description won him the tile of Professor of Humanities granted by the President of Poland. This year Professor Piotr Ruszkiewicz celebrates the 30th anniversary of his habilitation degree, the 40th anniversary of completing his doctorate, and the 50th anniversary of university matriculation.

Piotr Ruszkiewicz’s academic career and scholarly research have led him to many Polish and American universities and colleges, including the University of Warsaw, University of Silesia, Opole University, University of Gdańsk, the State Higher Vocational School in Elbląg and Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce. He received the position of Professor ordinarius at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, where he has been teaching since 2002. Professor Ruszkiewicz was a beneficiary of two American government research grants at the University of Massachusetts and State University of New York at Stony Brook. He is a member of Societas Linguistica Europaea, Polskie Towarzystwo Językoznawcze and Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Języka Polskiego. Over the many years of his academic career Professor Ruszkiewicz has served as a member of the editorial boards of several linguistic journals. For his work Piotr Ruszkiewicz has been presented with two awards of the Minister of Science and Higher Education and nine awards of the Rectors of the universities for which he worked. He has been the supervisor of numerous BA and MA theses and doctoral dissertations.

Piotr Ruszkiewicz’s research interests have been manifold and include theories of phonology, morphology and syntax, as well as graphophonemics and linguistic historiography. The wide and lasting impact of Professor Ruszkiewicz’s research is testified by the number of scholars who have contributed to the present volume and by the variety of linguistic fields they represent.

Alicja Witalisz ← 7 | 8 → ← 8 | 9 →

Piotr Ruszkiewicz’s selected publications


1976Modern Approaches to Graphophonemic Investigations in English. Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski.

1978Phonology. Part I: An Anthology of European Structuralism. Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski.

1981Phonology. Part II: An Anthology of Generative Phonology. Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski.

1981Graphophonemics: A Book of Readings. Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski.

1984Aspects of Reflexivization in English. Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski.

1984Topics in the Grammar of English Reflexives. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club.

1997Morphology in Generative Grammar: From Morpheme-Based Grammar to Lexical Morphology and Beyond. A Study of Selected Models of Morphological Description. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego.

2001Distinctive Feature Theory: Origins, Development and Current Practice. Gdańsk:
Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego.


1972“Tytus Benni’s Views on English Graphemics”, Acta Philologica 5: 5-37.

1973“Baudouin de Courtenay and the Theory of Distinctive Features”, Biuletyn Fonograficz­ny 14: 91-99.

1975“Individual Staff-Member’s Report on the Progress in Research”, The Fiftieth Anniversary of the English Department, University of Warsaw, 1923-1973: Jubilee Volume Containing Materials Prepared for the Session Held on 2nd June 1973. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 105-106.

1978“Jan Baudouin de Courtenay’s Theory of the Grapheme”, Acta Philologica 7: 111-128.

1978with Stefan Konderski and Jerzy Wełna, “Professor Alfred Reszkiewicz on the English Language”, Acta Philologica 7: 5-24 [Part II: 11-17].

1982“Tough-movement, Reflexives and Other Problems”, Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 14: 267-291.

1983“English Phonology and Morphology: Some Revisions and Suggestions”, Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 15: 77-102.

1984“Problemy refleksywizacji: interpretacja anaforycznych fraz werbalnych zawierających zaimki zwrotne”, Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN. Oddział w Katowicach 8: 66-68.

1985“Constraining a Rule of Truncation in English”, Studia gramatyczne 7: 179-215.

1985“On the Interpretation of Null VP Anaphora Involving Reflexives”, Linguistica Silesiana 5: 47-67. ← 9 | 10 →

1985“On Voice and Reflexivization”, Linguistica Silesiana 7: 11-31.

1986“On the Notion of ‘Strict Reflexive Environment’”, Zeszyty Naukowe WSP w Opolu. Filologia Angielska 2: 57-69.

1986“On Some Recent Claims Concerning Derivational Morphology”, Linguistics Across Historical and Geographical Boundaries. In Honour of Jacek Fisiak on the Occasion ← 10 | 11 → of His Fiftieth Birthday. Vol. 2: Descriptive, Contrastive and Applied Linguistics, ed. D. Kastovsky and A. Szwedek. The Hague: Mouton, 1025-1049.

1988“Remarks on Voicing Phenomena: With Special Reference to English and Polish”, Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics 24: 61-81.

1989“Constraining the Rule of Lower in Polish”, Folia Linguistica 23(3-4): 317-326.

1990“Aspiration in English and Polish: An Overview”. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics 25: 147-161.

1990“The Rule of Lower in Polish: Theoretical Implications”, Folia Linguistica 24(3-4): 245-267.

1992“Observations Concerning the beze(cny) Family of Words in Polish: With Morals for Cyclic Phonology”, Phonological Investigations, ed. J. Fisiak and S. Puppel. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 153-184.

1997“On the Functioning of Rules of Adjustment in Generative Grammar”, Language History and Language Modelling. A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday, ed. R. Hickey and S. Puppel. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs 101. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1199-1229.

1998“On the Diachrony-in-Synchrony Analysis in Morphology”, Folia Linguistica Historica 18(1-2): 81-118.

1998“Towards a Redundant-Free Theory of Affixational Morphology”, Tematy. Księga jubileuszowa w 70. rocznicę urodzin profesora Leszka Moszyńskiego, ed. K. Szcześniak and H. Wątróbska. Slawistyka 9. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, 210-219.

1999“Morphological and Syntactic Categories in the Theory of Generative Grammar”, Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 34: 227-265.

1999“On Some Less Familiar Aspects of the Suffix -ive in English”, A Session Organised in Brzeg on the Occasion of Professor Dr Gerhard Nickel’s 70th Birthday. A Festschrift. Opole: Wydawnictwo “Sowa”, 39-70.

1999“On Subcategorization Frames in Morphology and Their Stability”, Festschrift for Professor Jan Cygan on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday, ed. M. Post. Anglica Wratislaviensia 35.Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 29-49.

2003“On the Status of Infixation and Circumfixation in English Morphology”, Papers and Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 38: 133-166.

2012“English Nosal Sound Revisited”, Sound Structure and Sense: Studies in Memory of Edmund Gussmann, ed. E. Cyran, H. Kardela and B. Szymanek. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL, 575-629.

2012“On (Non-)deriving the Agma in Present-Day English”, Explorations in the English Language: Middle Ages and Beyond: Festschrift for Professor Jerzy Wełna on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday, ed. Joanna Esquibel and Anna Wojtyś. Studies in English Medieval Language and Literature 35. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 77-90.

Editorial work:

1977Linguistica Silesiana 2. Wrocław [secretary of the editorial board].

1979Linguistica Silesiana 3. Katowice [secretary of the editorial board].

1986Zeszyty Naukowe WSP w Opolu. Filologia Angielska 2. Opole [co-editor].

1991Zeszyty Naukowe WSP w Opolu. Filologia Angielska 5. Opole [editor].

1992Zeszyty Naukowe WSP w Opolu. Filologia Angielska 6. Opole [editor].

1993Zeszyty Naukowe WSP w Opolu. Filologia Angielska 7. Opole [co-editor].

1999Beyond Philology. An International Journal of Linguistics, Literary Studies and English Language Teaching 1. Gdańsk [co-editor].

2002Beyond Philology. An International Journal of Linguistics, Literary Studies and English Language Teaching 2. Gdańsk [co-editor].

2004Beyond Philology 3. Gdańsk [member of the editorial board].

2007Beyond Philology 4. Gdańsk [member of the editorial board].

2008Beyond Philology 5. Gdańsk [member of the editorial board].

2009Beyond Philology 6. Gdańsk [member of the editorial board].

2010Beyond Philology 7. Gdańsk [member of the editorial board].

2012Token: A Journal of English Linguistics. Vol. 1. Kielce: Jan Kochanowski University of Kielce [member of the editorial board].

2013Explorations: A Journal of Language and Literature. Opole University [member of the editorial board].

2013Studies in Language, Culture and Society. Vol. 1. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang [co- editor]

Book reviews:

1979Elements of British and American English, by K. Janicki, Kwartalnik Neofilologiczny 26: 123-132.

1981Errors as Indications of the Development of Interlanguage, by J. Arabski, Kwartalnik Neofilologiczny 28: 256-263.

1990The Typology of Reflexives, by E. Geniušiené, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache und Literatur 112(2): 280-287.

1992Gramatyka generatywno-transformacyjna (TG) a uogólniona gramatyka struktur frazowych (GPSG): próba porównania i oceny obu teorii z punktu widzenia ich przydatności do opisu wybranych faktów składniowych polszczyzny, by I. Bobrowski, Polonica XV: 156-165. ← 11 | 12 →


Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, “Wechsel des s (š, ś) mit ch in der polnischen Sprache”, 1870.

Leszek Biedrzycki, „Kilka uwag o mowie i piśmie”, 1968.

Jan Cygan, „Fonologia w ujęciu szkoły brytyjskiej”, 1969.

Robert Godel, “L’école saussurienne de Genève”, 1961.

Göran Hammarström, “Type et typème, graphe et graphème”, 1964.

Roman Jakobson, “Observations sur le classement phonologique des consonnes”, 1939.

Henryk Ułaszyn, “Laut, Phonema, Morphonema”, 1931.

Claes Witting, “Phone et phonème, graphe et graphème”, 1960. ← 12 | 13 →

Tabula gratulatoria


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2014 (December)
kognitive Linguistik historische Linguistik Phonologie Lexikologie
Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2014. 284 pp., 14 tables, 3 graphs

Biographical notes

Alicja Witalisz (Volume editor)


Title: From Sound to Meaning in Context