Aggression as a Challenge
Theory and research- Current Problems
Table Of Contents
- About the author
- About the book
- This eBook can be cited
- Table of Contents
- Part I. Aggression: Theoretical Issues
- Stages and Paths of Aggression Development – Knowledge that Awaits being Uncovered
- Patterns of Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression. A Cross-national Study on Sex Difference
- Part II. Aggression: The World of Children and Adolescents
- Students’ Aggressive Behavior at High School: A Comparison of Czech and Polish Samples
- Assuming the Roles of Aggressor and Victim by Lower Secondary School Youth. Research Report
- Peer Sexual Abuse. Diagnosis of the Phenomenon, Perpetrators and their Therapy
- Cyberbullying – the Need for Prevention in Schools
- Family Correlates of Adolescents’ Readiness to Assume the Role of Aggressor or Victim
- Anger and Attachment of Children Growing up in Kinship-based Foster Families
- Aggression and Coping with Stress. Which Aspects of Aggression Appear Due to Coping with Stress?
- Specific Risk Behaviors and Religious Coping in Teenagers Using Psychoactive Substances
- Family Dysfunctionality as a Risk Factor for Mood Disorders in Adolescents
- Part III. Aggression. The World of Adults
- Emotional Dysregulation and Aggression in People with Borderline Personality Disorder
- Aversive Parenting. An Attempt of Conceptualization
- Family Determinants and Susceptibility of an Individual to Mobbing at the Workplace
- Manifestations of Aggression in Prisoners and their Selected Determinants
- The Emotional Intelligence of Male Polish Prisoners in Comparison to Men with no Criminal Record
- Professional Approach and the First Line of Institutional Response to Domestic Violence: A Hungarian Overview
Human nature is potentially aggressive and destructive and potentially orderly and constructive.
We are only just beginning to understand the power of love because we are just beginning to understand the weakness of force and aggression.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
Sooner or later all the people of the world will have to discover a way to live together in peace, and thereby transform this pending cosmic elegy into a creative psalm of brotherhood. If this is to be achieved, man must evolve for all human conflict a method which rejects revenge, aggression and retaliation. The foundation of such a method is love.
Martin Luther King, Jr
This volume – Aggression as a Challenge: Theory and Research. Current Problems – edited by Hanna Liberska and Marzanna Farnicka introduces the reader to the complex theme of aggression.
As stressed by the editors, aggression is a huge umbrella under which constructs of mind, types of behaviour, particular experiences and emotional states, specific kinds of social interactions or even historical and political categories regarded as non-standard events (social movements, wars, angry social protests etc.) have been included. Such broad and sometimes imprecise notions always make it very important to re-visit and to re-formulate issues concerning aggression, as demonstrated not only by this new book, but also by the extension and variety of the existing international literature, most of which was quoted in the references in this volume. I agree with what Lidia Cierpiałkowska, Hanna Liberska, Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Zbigniew Izdebski and Marzanna Farnicka pointed out during the debate entitled Aggression like a challenge for researchers at the XXXVII CICA International Conference Conflict and Aggression: Developmental and Social Conditions, held in Poland on the initiative of CICA, Kazimierz Wielki University and the University of ZielonaGóra (21–25 June 2014). There are always difficulties regarding: (a) basic issues such as understanding accounts of aggression, its genesis, mechanisms, prevention and possibilities of re-socialization, (b) issues with the devising research procedures or therapeutic programmes, (c) lack of social consent to explore some contents tackling violence and aggression in various environments, connected, for instance, with ethical and/or ideological reasons. ← 7 | 8 →
This book represents a new contribution to the previously mentioned issues. Most of the contributions come from Polish Universities or Institutions, but some chapters were also written through collaborations developed by the editors with colleagues from Hungary, Czech Republic, Norway and Mongolia. Most of the studies in this volume were conducted in a variety of samples in Poland. These investigations are very significant because the volume gives a picture of the actual state of the art of aggression studies in Poland. Another important value of this volume is that although the mother tongue of most of the authors is Polish, the book is written in English. This is really good news because it allows international readers to share the contents at an international level.
The publication divulges notions about aggression and its conditions in various periods of life and in various environments. The book is divided into three sections, representing a general introduction to the topic, aggression in children and adolescents, and aggression in adulthood. The first chapter has the specific aim of giving the reader a frame of reference regarding the illustration of the basic concepts connected with research on aggression and aggressiveness. Although the second chapter by Adam Frączek presents his own theory and research concerning readiness for interpersonal aggression, almost all the other chapters present studies well-grounded and introduced by a specified model of aggression. The variety of these models reflects again the complexity of conceptualization connected with the term aggression. As for methods, the contributions range from qualitative to quantitative methodology, from descriptive data to the use of more sophisticated statistics.
The section dedicated to the issues of aggression in children and adolescents focuses on many important topics that, according to me, could be divided into two groups. The first describes some important aspects of aggression: aggression in school, experience of being a victim and an aggressor among youth, peer sexual violence, and cyber-bullying. The second is devoted to a description of the possible relationships between aggression and different variables: adolescents’ stress, religious coping with stress, attachment, family variables, and aversive parenting (also reported in the third part of the monograph). All these correlations can be of use to help professionals know how to detect children’s and adolescents’ strengths and fragilities in dealing with aggression.
The third part of the monograph regards aggression in adulthood. Although it seems to be less developed than the other two parts, it looks at very important topics. In particular, I appreciated the chapters about aggression in prisoners. It is not so easy to reach such a specific sample. Moreover, the results are very important for possible preventive measures. ← 8 | 9 →
As suggested by the editors, the book, both in the theoretical explanations and by empirical examples, demonstrates an alternative approach to studying aggression and its symptoms. Furthermore, it outlines the difficulties contemporary researchers tend to struggle with and the social needs within this area.
I am not an expert on the topic of aggression; however, it was really a pleasure to read this book. I learned very much about the state of research about aggression as it transpires in the international literature reported all along the different papers and the state of the art of studies about aggression in Poland. In my opinion, aggression assumes different meanings within cultures and even in sub-cultures. I would like to thank the editors for asking me comment on this volume.
I also appreciate the really great effort the editors made to put together the volume and to coordinate the chapters. It is not an easy job.
We need really more of these efforts. Working as researchers, we always have more questions than answers, and this volume may represent a new starting point for further work. I hope, the results of this volume will be a renewed push for new studies. We will never finish studying aggression.
Finally, I would like stress the importance of this volume for the prevention of aggression and violence, both in earlier stages of development and in adults.
Professor Adriana Lis
Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization,
University of Padua, Padua, Italy ← 9 | 10 →
We live in a world of phenomena created by the human mind and experience. Some of these phenomena are conflict, aggression, aggressiveness and violence. They are seen as constructs of the mind, types of behaviour, particular experiences and emotional states, specific social interactions or even historical and political categories regarded as non-standard events (social movements, wars, angry social protests, etc.), Their ambiguity and complexity was not unnoticed by Camilla Pagani (2014, p. 100). Such a broad, imprecise understanding of these notions partly explains their overuse in the analysis and elucidation of social life. The alleged commonness and surface knowledge of the issues stem from the insufficient diversification of these terms, their improper understanding and, consequently, the often inadequate reactions to their symptoms. Despite the existence of the Seville Statements, recognised by UNESCO in 1986 as our heritage, there exist many areas of social life where the knowledge of the conditions and prophylactics of aggression, as well as good practice in this field, are ignored and omitted. These findings have been recently confirmed by the participants of the XXXVII CICA International Conference, Conflict and Aggression: Developmental and Social Conditions, held in Poland on the initiative of CICA, Kazimierz Wielki University and the University of Zielona Góra (June 21–25, 2014). During a debate entitled Aggression as a challenge for researchers, Lidia Cierpiałkowska, Hanna Liberska, Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Zbigniew Izdebski and Marzanna Farnicka pointed out the difficulties in various spheres of science and social practice (education, medicine, administration, social service, social order, etc.) regarding the rudimentary issues, such as understanding accounts of aggression, agression’s genesis and mechanisms, prophylactics and agressors’ possibilities of resocialization. They also indicated the difficulties an aggression researcher has to face in the initial stages of forming the issue, such as a lack of social consent to explore some contents tackling violence and aggression in various environments. Further difficulties are connected with the creation of research procedures or therapeutic programmes or repair programmes. Their causes may be traced to ethical and ideological concerns as well as ignorance (insufficient knowledge among the so-called “general public” and/or “decision-makers’” disregard of scientific knowledge), economic and political motives, or to their alleged low usefulness and lack of benefit (both financial and social).
From one perspective, we are surrounded by “common knowledge” about the nature of aggression, the origins of conflicts and methods of their solving. There ← 11 | 12 → are numerous tokens of interest and understanding as well as social support for the significance of research on aggression and violence. There are a lot of renown scientific and social organizations in the world such as CICA (Coloqiuo Internationale Cobre a Agresion), ISRA (International Society for Research on Aggression), STR (Society about Terrorism Research), Pro Ecpat (Society about Fighting Aggression Against Children), FNP (Nobody’s Children Fund). Groundbreaking findings of the scientists connected with CICA about the nature of aggression and violence have been recorded in the Seville Statement (as mentioned earlier). However, from another perspective, we often witness aggressive behaviour in interpersonal, even intimate, relations. They are based on certain patterns of solving conflicts handed down to the younger generation at home, at school, in the media and eventually often reinforced in adult life. Also advertising campaigns and public or political events indicate that knowledge of the conditions of aggression and the methods of limiting violence in social life are ignored or used in the interest of certain groups (e.g., terrorists).
The ways of forming the media transfer were pointed out by a famous researcher on terrorism – Alice Cicero. She indicated the characteristic features of a successful transfer aimed at adolescents by terrorist organizations (2014). The means they incorporate suggest their good orientation in the notions of aggression and violence. Their objective is to arouse feelings of helplessness in their audience. Specialists who understand the effectiveness of the media can only call for better education and more responsible global media and social policies. Many countries carry out research on the influence of media and their content on the shaping of social behaviour, including violence. They also run prophylactic programmes (often with the participation of media) intended to make the recipients sensitive to the conventionality of such content. Nevertheless, the speed of information spread throughout the web is so far unattainable. Therefore, chances are that the media transfer of aggression is soon going to define new “aggression” standards that regulate social life. There is much evidence of this fact, the harshest being the suicides committed by adolescents – the victims of peer violence in the form of publishing scenes of the rape of the victim on the Internet.
This publication aims to present the concepts of aggression, violence, their conditions in various periods of life and various environments. It is an attempt to join the global discussion on creating conditions and key points connected with the risk of pathologization of the personality and behaviour from an individual and social perspective.
The book has been divided into three sections. The first is introductory and contains the basic concepts connected with research on aggression and aggressiveness. ← 12 | 13 → It provides the reader with a starting point for further analysis of the theoretical-empirical content of the following parts of the book. The second section embraces the issues of shaping aggression and aggressiveness in children and adolescents in their primary developmental environments, i.e., at school and in the family. The third part is devoted to the problems of aggression in the adult world. It includes the issues of aggressive behaviour disorders in people with borderline personality, aversive parenting and mobbing. This part also contains descriptions of the conditions of aggression in people in institutions. It also outlines the opportunities of institutional support for victims of violence.
The first part of the monograph contains two chapters. The authors of the first chapter entitled “Stages and Paths of Aggression Development – Knowledge that Awaits being Uncovered” are Hanna Liberska and Marzanna Farnicka. The authors undertake to explain the complexity of the issues and research on aggression with respect to renown and acknowledged scientific theories, as well as the latest findings of contemporary researchers. They outline the challenges every researcher faces to make the results of their studies answer the key questions concerning the paths of aggression development in a multidimensional world. The authors also present their own model of studying aggression from a developmental perspective, which may be interesting for other researchers, even outside of this field.
In the second chapter, “Patterns of Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression. A Cross-national Study on Sex Difference,” Adam Frączek, an eminent researcher of aggression, presents his own theory concerning the readiness for interpersonal aggression. This theory is grounded in the outcome of research he describes together with his associates Karolina Konopka and Monika Dominiak-Kochanek.
The second part of the monograph, Aggression: The World of Children and Adolescents, consists of nine chapters, each devoted to the forming of aggression and aggressiveness in the early stages of human life.
The opening chapter of this section, entitled “Students’ Aggressive Behavior at High School: A Comparison of Czech and Polish Samples” was co-authored by Simona Musilova and Janusz Trempała. The authors indicate the relationship between the content of particular prophylactic programmes in various educational systems and the understanding of aggression among adolescents and teachers. The researchers have observed their diversification in various cultural contexts.
- ISBN (PDF)
- ISBN (ePUB)
- ISBN (MOBI)
- ISBN (Hardcover)
- Publication date
- 2016 (April)
- adolescents adults pupils prisoners parents
- Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2016. 274 pp., 22 tables, 31 graphs