Contemporary Approaches in Education

by Kevin Norley (Volume editor) Mehmet Ali Icbay (Volume editor) Hasan Arslan (Volume editor)
©2016 Edited Collection 502 Pages


Contemporary Approaches in Education presents papers of the Fifth European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences in St. Petersburg, Russia and the Sixth European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences in Selcuk, Izmir, Turkey. The contributions deal with a wide range of educational issues, namely teaching and learning, educational policy and school psychology.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Foreword
  • Contents
  • Chapter I – Learning and Teaching
  • A Design Implementation for Constructivist Learning-Based Interactive Direct Teaching: An Experimental Approach
  • A Study of Classroom Management Skills of Preschool Teachers
  • Teacher-Student Interaction in English as a Foreign Language Classes in Higher Education
  • Analysis of Turkish Textbooks Prepared for Turkish Children Living Abroad in Terms of Education of Values / Teaching Values to Turkish Children Living Abroad: An Analysis of their Textbooks
  • Evaluation of Candidate Teachers’ Attitudes toward Turkish Republic Revolution History and Kemalism Course with Respect to Different Variables (Ordu University Sample)
  • Handwriting and its Role in Teacher Education
  • An Evaluation of the Elementary School Teachers’ Music Education Program
  • A Review of the Nonverbal and Written Communication in Boris Pasternak’s “Doctor Zhivago”
  • E-Instructor Certificate Program: Reflections of Participants
  • Persuasion Techniques in Persuasive Texts of Undergraduate Students: A Case Study
  • Students’ Beliefs Concerning Written Error Correction
  • A Study of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers in Different Number Sense Components
  • Translation Competency Implementation, its Relevance in the Overall Efficiency in Translation from English into Albanian
  • Grammar Teaching Problems According to the Opinions of Teacher Candidates: A Phenomenological Approach
  • The Strategies used by Turkish EFL Teachers in the ESP Classroom
  • A study of a Metaphor: The Opinions of Classroom Teachers Toward the Design of Future Learning Environments by using their 21st Century Means
  • The usage of the Biographies of Mathematicians in Elementary and Secondary Mathematics Textbooks
  • Issues of Introducing Service Learning in the General Curriculum: A Case Study of Foreign Language Classes and Issues of Incorporating Service Learning in the Curriculum at a Japanese University
  • Chapter II – Educational Policy
  • Organisational Justice in Decision-Making Processes
  • Freshman Expectations: The Case of the Banking and Insurance Department in a Newly Established School of Applied Sciences
  • The Role of Technology in Teaching Activities: Web Based Teaching Applications
  • Students’ Reasons for Attending Private Courses and their Views on them: The case of Turkey
  • Advances in Accounting Education Affecting Efficiency and Sufficiency of Knowledge
  • The Relationship between Organisational Communication and Organisational Climate in Universities
  • The Issue of Teacher Training in Vocational Technical Education in Turkey
  • Research on the Environmental Knowledge and Environmental Awareness of Preschool Teachers
  • The Importance of Lifelong Learning for the Quality of Educational Work in Relation to the Leadership Efficiency of School Principals
  • Management Problems between Preschool Teachers and Administrators and their Solution Methods for these Problems
  • A Comparison of Asian Tigers’ (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong) Education Systems
  • Opinions of Women Teachers regarding not having Postgraduate Education
  • Integrating Service Learning and Teacher Education: Preparing Teachers for Diversity
  • Chapter III – School Psychology
  • Self-Monitoring and Semantic Distinction of School Masters
  • Women on Board: The Perception of Gender Discrimination and Prejudice in the Maritime Sector
  • Witnessing Domestic Violence of the Father Against the Mother in Childhood: Scale Developing Study / Children Witnessing the Father’s Violence Against the Mother: A Scale Developing Study
  • Examination of the Predicting Effect of the Environmental Attitudes of Parents on the Environmental Attitudes of Preschool Children
  • Improvements in the Life Quality of Children with Leukemia
  • Raising Awareness in Language Learners for Developing Motivational Self-regulation
  • Gender Self-Concepts of Turkish Five to Six Year-Old Preschool Girls
  • An Investigation on the Gender Perception of Children in Early Childhood Education
  • A Comparison Between the Social Behaviours of Preschoolers Attending Public and Private Institutions Based on the Teachers’ Assessment
  • Primary School Teachers’ Opinions About Positive Discrimination
  • An Investigation of the Receptive and Expressive Language Levels of Twins and Singletons between the Ages of 48–66 Months

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Chapter I – Learning and Teaching

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Ahmet Gürses, Çetin Doğar & Tuba Dalga

A Design Implementation for Constructivist Learning-Based Interactive Direct Teaching: An Experimental Approach


Learning is a process which continues / goes on constantly without a specific end point. Human beings learn everything as they live (Meirink et al., 2009) and acquire attitude, skill, knowledge, and values as a result of their interaction with their surroundings. These acquisitions form the basis of learning. Consequently, changes in thoughts, emotions, and behaviour can be observed in people. There are various theories on how these changes occur. These theories may be behavioural, cognitive, and affective theories.

Recently, several approaches have been set up to promote a strong learning environment. The most important requirement for all of these approaches is to find a teacher who is both well trained and has the desired characteristics (Germann et al., 1996; Schelfhout et al., 2006; Tynjala, 1999; Rasul, Bukhsh and Batool, 2011; Özbay et al., 2012 Tulbure, 2012). Among all these theories, the constructivist approach is the leading one.

With rapid developments in all fields, information and technology have become an integral part of our everyday lives, replacing the traditional transmission of knowledge that was mechanical and based on memory. It is necessary that everybody is able to see the relationship between the information and the methods employed to analyse it, to synthesise new information, and to use the new information in solving the problems (Taylor et al., 1997; Canpolat et al., 2009; Nie and Lau, 2009; Osman et al., 2009; Baeten, Struyven and Dochy, 2013). The constructivist approach stipulates that learning is both subjective and social (Ernest, 1998). The subjective element consists in the individual’s internalisation of what he or she has learnt through the use of symbols, models, concepts, and graphics. Learning is socially developed by a means of exchanging information and by interaction with others through cooperation (Özden, 2010).

The teacher holds an important role in the active learning approach, for it is he or she who organises the learning environment in advance, determines what will be performed during the course, and creates the materials to be used. In addition, the lesson is more joyful, fast-paced, amusing, and attention grabbing. The most ← 25 | 26 → important characteristic of active learning is to confront the student with real-life situations, to encourage permanent learning, and to provide him or her with a meaningful learning experience (Kalem and Fer, 2003).

Meaningful learning means acquiring ideas, concepts, and principles by associating new information with the information already existing in memory (Ausubel, 1977; Faw and Walker, 1976). Learning is meaningful if it is systematically associated with similar concepts from new information (Ausubel, 1963 and 1968; Ausubel & Robinson, 1969). In other words, the new information is meaningful if it expands, corrects, or details the information already acquired. In the process of creating a meaning, individual variables such as age, past experiences, socio-economic status, and educational background are of a decisive importance. The students’ background determines whether or not he or she finds the learning process meaningful or not. In contrast to reasoning and induction methods used in discovery learning, Ausubel’s model supports deduction and reasoning. General ideas are taught first, and then it goes on to specific subjects. In this model, it is the role of the teacher to help students with dividing information into small pieces and combining new ideas with the similar ideas previously learnt.

The studies conducted by Ausubel revealed that teaching where preliminary organisers are used encourages the learning process more than teaching performed without the aid of these organisers (Ausubel, 1978); however, inconsistent results were obtained from other studies and by other researchers (Barnes and Clawson, 1975). In lessons which aim to emphasise the relationship between the concepts, the organisers are used efficiently (Mayer, 1984). Meanwhile, if a teacher uses the similes in excess, then the students cannot establish the connection between the concepts. The organisers can be efficiently used for making analogies or maps (diagrams) with familiar subjects while teaching difficult academic subjects (Faw and Waller, 1976; Verdi and Kulhavy, 2002; Driscoll, 2005).

In Interactive Direct Teaching Based on Constructivist Learning (IDTBCL), learning is evaluated as a change-oriented or mental process. This approach includes creating the awareness of the current concepts among the students, creating a broad mental space that includes multiple conceptual parts, ensuring that new information is adapted to their previous knowledge through constant contextual communication, and harmonisation. This model promotes a more active role for the students in which they take into account the importance of the concepts as mental elements in order to develop positive attitudes not only towards science and learning, but also toward scientific process skills which in turn will help them increase their achievements.

The purpose of the study is to analyse the effect of IDTBCL Model upon student success and attitude. ← 26 | 27 →


The pre-test & post-test control group research design, which is a quasi-experimental research design, was used in this study. For this reason, 50 students attending grade ten at an Anatolian high school were chosen as the sampling group and were divided into two groups of 25 students each, with the first group as the control group and the second group as the experimental group.

The subjects / topics within the scope of the implementation and the sub-titles are given below:

a) Evaporation

Steam pressure and the factors affecting the steam pressure

Evaporation rate and the factors affecting the evaporation rate

b) Boiling

The boiling point and the factors affecting the boiling point

The control group was introduced to the subject matter of the enquiry, evaporation and boiling, through the traditional methods by the same teacher for two weeks. In the experimental group, the same topic was taught for the same period using the IDTBCL model.

A test for evaluating the student’s rate of success in mastering abstract concepts and an attitude survey were administrated to both the experimental and the control groups. A multiple-choice conceptual test of 15 items was prepared to cover the specific acquisitions. The questionnaire was created by the researchers. This survey was performed as a pilot study on 50 students in grade ten and the reliability coefficient (Cronbach alpha) found was 0.73. Also, a test developed to determine the attitude of the students toward the IDTBCL methods was adjusted to include 23 questions using a seven choice Likert-type scale. Part A has nine questions, while part B has thirteen questions to evaluate the participation of students in the survey. One question is an open-ended question in which students can express their own different ideas. While the questions in part A evaluated the attitude toward the performed method, the items in part B were designed to measure the degree of awareness of the IDTBCL principles among the students. Quantitative analysis was carried out on the total scores of students from the pre-test and post-test enquiries using the SPSS 15.0 package software. After the pre-test administration, a t-test was carried out in order to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in terms of success between the experimental and control groups. In order to determine whether there was a significant difference between the groups according to the test results, the ANOVA model was used. ← 27 | 28 →


In order to determine the effect of the IDTBCL upon the student success, the ANOVA analysis was performed. It measured the results to determine whether there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of success. The findings from the statistical evaluation of the data obtained from the answers given by the students in the sample group to the multiple choice questions are presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Independent t-test results of the pretest

There was no significant difference between the pre-test average scores of the experimental and the control groups (p>0.05).

The subjects of evaporation and boiling were explained to the control group using the traditional method and to the experimental group using the IDTBCL method. Following the teaching process, the same test was once again performed on both groups. According to the post-test results, the experimental group was more successful than the control group. A statistically significant difference was recorded between the post-test scores.

When the groups’ post-test scores were analysed, it was noticed that the standard deviation of the experimental group (Mexp: 11.72 SD: 1.20) was lower than the standard deviation of the control group (Mcont: 8.56 SD: 2.72). This proved that the results of the students in the experimental group were closer to each other and that they were overall more successful than the students in the control group. In terms of student success, the results were more homogenous in the experimental group, while the same homogeneity could not be observed in the results provided by the control group. According to the results, the IDTBCL model increased the interest of each student in the classroom and in the course and the students’ attention to the lesson taught. It was concluded that it was a more efficient method for teaching these subjects. ← 28 | 29 →

Table 2: ANOVA test results of the post-test

(R Squared = 0.369 (Adjusted R Squared = 0.343)

The analysis of the aforementioned data shows that the students in the experimental group had scores of 36 and higher, while 72% of the students developed a positive attitude toward the IDTBCL model (see Table 3).

Table 3: Descriptive analysis results of the attitude toward the IDTBCL model: Section A

In section B, the students’ opinion on The IDTBCL model was asked. The aforementioned data indicate that the students who agreed to items one to twelve and the ones who disagreed to item thirteen developed a positive attitude towards the performed method. Those students reached up to 75.6% for positive attitude on the attitude scale. ← 29 | 30 →

Table 4: Descriptive analysis results of the attitude toward the IDTBCL model: Section B

Moreover, the part in which we required the students to mention their positive or negative views on the IDTBCL model was answered by 24% of the students. The answers given by the students were as follows:

This is a very efficient method, the lesson is more joyful, and the students learn new subjects without getting bored.

This method is a good teaching method that helps students to make connections by associating the unknown subject taught with familiar events in daily life and also encourages them to be more active during the lesson.

I can only say that it is a highly beneficial method; it is as it should be.

Since this method focuses on the student, and not the teacher’s role, the student is more active.

The above sentences prove that the students developed a positive attitude toward the IDTBCL model.


Recently, teacher-centered teaching has been called into question. The traditional approach based on memorising reduces the students to a passive role in which they expect the piece of information to already be tailored for them; this negatively affects the sense of curiosity and ultimately produces individuals without analytic skills. In fact, nowadays people need to develop critical thinking that enables them to question the events, gain access to information, and properly use it. It is not sufficient to passively accumulate information, rather it is necessary to make use of that knowledge and turn it into action. The information gets stronger and is enriched through action. It has been accepted that the learning process is more efficient when it is implemented in an active manner. In that case, the students use their minds and their own experience while learning and they are active; they get involved in the act of learning and try to use what they have learnt. The fundamental purpose is to activate the permanent learning process and make students the leading actor in the act of learning. In fact, it is known that learning is an individual process. We should make learning environments more dynamic, comfortable, and interesting. Because of that, it can be said that the IDTBCL model is a promising alternative solution to the traditional teaching approach ← 30 | 31 → that is based upon memorising. It has been revealed through recent studies that teaching models and methods aiming at implementing conceptual based learning develop more scientific process skills compared to the traditional method. Those skills are necessary for formulating hypotheses and conducting scientific research (Lavoie, 1999). On the other hand, the studies on the implementation of these methods have shown that the students were initially misinformed about them. However, according to the post-test results, these misconceptions were overcome in the experimental group on which the IDTBCL model was used. According to these results, we can say that this model had a similar effect to those of concept maps, conceptual networks, and conceptual change texts.

In teaching activities performed on the control group, the teacher was at the center of the process. The students did not regard this as odd and they showed signs of being ready for such a teaching approach, both mentally and in a psychomotor sense. However, in this traditional approach conducted by the teacher, affective satisfaction was not possible among the students due to the emergence of a teacher profile of explaining while students took notes, giving examples, or asking students to find examples, and of a student profile of listening, taking notes, finding examples when asked, and giving answers. In the experimental group, the teacher urged students to engage in mental activities such as thinking, evaluating, and constructing. This situation gave rise to a learning environment in which the teacher and student engaged in activities through an intense interaction, resulting in a correct orientation in focus being obtained. This aforementioned harmonisation no doubt requires far more energy than the one spent by the teacher while directing the traditional teaching process for both the preparation and teaching process itself. Orientating the student, who tends to be disorganised or free in an intellectual as well as in a physical sense, toward the natural process of creating an organised cognitive structure requires a cognitively and affectively experienced teacher. For, he or she has to transform complex realities into a system. In accordance, it should be considered that learning is a fundamental physiologic need and requires constant change from the natural tendencies of an individual. In order to produce an organised and dimensional change, like acting and doing sports, the individual needs fundamental nutritional inputs, as well as cognitive, intellectual, and energetic inputs. Therefore, learning can be considered as a beneficial work or an oriented change produced by the learner. The clearest indicator of the teacher’s professionalism and ability to master the chosen method (teaching model and techniques) is the size of the beneficial work and the significant change produced from the spent energy (time and teaching activities).

The first and most important step to do when starting a lesson is to establish good communication with the students. In curricula, teaching methods in which ← 31 | 32 → students and teachers are more active should be chosen. The methods emphasising the importance of concepts should especially be preferred. For that reason, changes should occur in some fields including family, school, and textbooks. A broad learning environment should be provided in order to meet the demands of the students. Variety in teaching activities brings with it a better understanding of subjects, a good synthesis of the topics studied, and an interactive studying environment. Creating multiple learning environments make it possible for the students to get the information by themselves (Vebrianto and Osman, 2011). Afterwards, it is necessary to define the subject in detail and to discuss the lesson with students using various ways such as asking questions, discussion, revision, repetition, induction, and deduction. This involves a lot of mental effort; however, it has been statistically proven that as long as the student is encouraged toward this activity, the method affects the student’s success more.


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ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2015 (October)
Teaching and learning Educational policy School psychology European Conference on Social and Behavioral Sciences
Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2015. 502 pp., 145 tables, 6 graphs

Biographical notes

Kevin Norley (Volume editor) Mehmet Ali Icbay (Volume editor) Hasan Arslan (Volume editor)

Kevin Norley is a lecturer in functional skills of English and Math at Bedford College. He also teaches on the college’s Sounds-Write program, is a member of the college’s Research Network and a fellow of the Institute for Learning. Mehmet Ali Icbay is an assistant professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey. His main interests are rooted in the ethnomethodological account of social organization in classroom settings. Hasan Arslan is an associate professor at the Onsekiz Mart University of Çanakkale, Turkey. His research interests include educational administration, student leadership, multicultural education, and higher education policy.


Title: Contemporary Approaches in Education