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Work-Process Based Development of Advanced Detailed Curricula

by Georg Spöttl (Author) Gert Loose (Author) Matthias Becker (Author)
Monographs 224 Pages

Table Of Content

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Preface
  • Table of Contents
  • 1 Introduction: Curriculum Development
  • 2 Curriculum in TVET
  • 2.1 Approaches of Curriculum Development
  • 2.2 Establishing a Platform for State-of-the-Art Development of Curricula
  • 2.2.1 Ensuring the Relevance of Curricula in TVET
  • 2.2.2 Work-Process Based Qualification Research as a Foundation for Curriculum Development
  • 2.2.2.1 Discussion of Qualification Research
  • 2.2.2.2 Work-Process Based Curriculum Development
  • 2.3 Work-Process Knowledge as the Basis of a Curriculum Design
  • 2.3.1 The Importance of Work-Process-Knowledge
  • 2.3.2 The Process of the Development of Curricula
  • 2.3.2.1 Vocational Education as a Link between Working and Learning
  • 2.3.2.2 A Shaping-Oriented Curriculum
  • 2.3.2.3 A Curriculum for Cooperative Vocational Education
  • 2.3.2.4 Educational and Qualificational Targets
  • 2.4 Summary and Background of the Curriculum Approach
  • 3 Conducting Work-Process Analyses for the Development of Curricula
  • 3.1 From Analysing “Work” to Analysing “Work-Processes”
  • 3.2 The Need for Conducting Work-Process Analyses
  • 3.3 Establishing the Platform for the Development of Advanced Detailed Curricula and Related Skill Testing
  • 3.3.1 A Step by Step Plan for Developing Advanced Detailed Curricula and Related Skill Testing
  • 3.3.2 The Complete Procedure of Conducting Work-Process Analyses
  • 3.3.3 The Starting Point: Establishing a Draft Profile of a Training Occupation
  • 3.3.3.1 Field of Activity
  • 3.3.3.2 Core Work-Processes and Competences
  • 3.3.3.3 Working Conditions
  • 3.3.3.4 Employment and Advancement
  • 3.3.3.5 Salary
  • 3.4 Embedding the Occupation in a Structure Regarding Level of Workmanship
  • 3.5 Embedding the Occupation in a Structure Regarding Clusters of Occupations
  • 3.5.1 Clustering Occupations
  • 3.5.2 Different Concepts of Occupational Clustering
  • 3.6 Overall Procedure and Instruments for Work-Process Analyses
  • 3.6.1 Forming a Team of Experts for Conducting Work-Process Analyses
  • 3.6.2 Research Regarding the Occupational Profile of the Occupation under Study
  • 3.6.3 Establishing Guidelines for Conducting the Visits to the Companies
  • 3.6.4 Selecting Companies for Conducting the Work-Process Analyses
  • 3.6.5 Conducting the Work-Process Analyses
  • 3.6.6 Developing a Draft Advanced Occupational Standard
  • 3.6.7 Verification of the Draft Advanced Occupational Standard
  • 3.6.8 Endorsement of the Advanced Occupational Standards
  • 3.6.9 Officiating the Advanced Occupational Standards by the Governmental Institution
  • 3.7 Intermediate Summary
  • 4 Advanced Detailed Curricula – Guidelines for Development
  • 4.1 Developing Advanced Detailed Curricula in a Two-Stage Process
  • 4.1.1 From Advanced Occupational Standards to Advanced Detailed Curricula
  • 4.1.2 The Concept of Developing Advanced Detailed Curricula7
  • 4.2 From the Concept to Operationalization of Advanced Detailed Curricula
  • 4.3 The Structure of Developing Advanced Detailed Curricula
  • 4.4 The Structure of the Curriculum Template
  • 4.4.1 Occupational Profile
  • 4.4.2 Occupational Scheme
  • 4.4.3 Course Descriptors
  • 4.4.4 Advanced Detailed Curriculum
  • 4.5 The Credit System
  • 4.5.1 Credit Concept and Related Terms
  • 4.5.2 Key Features of the Credit System
  • 4.5.3 Credit Allocation
  • 4.6 The Development of Outcome-Oriented Competences
  • 4.7 Establishing “Groups of Core Competences” to Define “Learning Areas”
  • 4.7.1 Groups of Core Competences
  • 4.7.2 Differentiation of Core Competences
  • 4.7.2.1 Customer Reception and Initiation of the Service
  • 4.7.2.2 Service Preparation and Processing of Service
  • 4.7.2.3 Vehicle Delivery
  • 4.8 Defining a 3-Dimensional Model of Competence-Based Outcomes
  • 4.8.1 Core Work-Processes
  • 4.8.2 Core Competences
  • 4.8.3 Detailing of the Core Work-Processes
  • 4.9 Occupational Didactical Analysis and Questions
  • 4.9.1 What is the Purpose of Formulating Guiding Didactical Questions?
  • 4.9.2 How are the Guiding Didactical Questions Generated?
  • 4.9.3 Do the Guiding Didactical Questions Adhere to a Structure?
  • 4.10 The Design of Learn- and Work Assignments
  • 4.10.1 Variants and Steps of Development
  • 4.10.2 Modes of Instruction
  • 4.11 Learning Environments
  • 4.11.1 Designing of Learning Environments Based on AOS
  • 4.11.2 Tools, Equipment, Materials
  • 4.12 Assessment Criteria
  • 4.12.1 Evidence Required to Demonstrate Competence in a Standard
  • 4.12.2 Assessment Requirements
  • 4.12.3 Methods of Assessment
  • 4.12.4 Content and Categories of Assessment
  • 4.13 Summary
  • 5 Sample Curriculum
  • 5.1 Summary of the Principles
  • 5.2 Example of a Format of the Curriculum
  • 5.2.1 Topics of the Structure
  • 5.2.2 Detailed Presentation
  • 5.3 Developing Learn- and Work Assignments
  • 5.3.1 Carrying out the Tasks/Project and the Learn- and Work Assignments
  • 5.3.2 Assessment of the Results of the Project by the Teachers/Trainers:
  • 5.3.3 Example: Learn- and Work Assignments
  • 6 Conclusion
  • Sources
  • Abbreviations
  • The Authors
  • Series index

cover

Bibliographic Information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche
Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available online at
http://dnb.d-nb.de.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A CIP catalog record for this book has been applied for at the
Library of Congress.

About the author

Georg Spöttl is a professor for TVET and the director of the UBC, Center for Technology, Work and TVET, University of Bremen, Germany.

Gert Loose, Dr., is a researcher at UBC, Center for Technology, Work and TVET, University of Bremen, Germany.

Matthias Becker is a professor for TVET and the director of the Institute of Vocational Education Sciences (IBM), Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.

About the book

How can it be ensured that vocational education matches the requirements of the increasingly complex world of work? In search of a suitable approach, it has become evident that Competence-Based Training cannot provide this service since it focuses on static “work” instead of encompassing dynamic “work-processes.” Consequently it is necessary to rely on the analysis of work-processes when designing a detailed curriculum for a digitalized environment and Industry 4.0. The results of the work-process analyses reflect the spectrum of requirements and are applied as the core elements for the shaping of detailed curricula. This ensures a state of the art of curricula and facilitates their swift development in matching changes in the world of work.

This eBook can be cited

This edition of the eBook can be cited. To enable this we have marked the start and end of a page. In cases where a word straddles a page break, the marker is placed inside the word at exactly the same position as in the physical book. This means that occasionally a word might be bifurcated by this marker.

Preface

Our increasingly complex environment is liable to rapid technological and organizational change. As a consequence, mankind has to face the challenge of monitoring and safeguarding the systems and subsystems which have originally been created with the aim to assist us in our daily duties and enjoyments. Parallel to the long historical way of developing all these assistance-systems man has developed from the autonomous status of life in a community formed for subsistence to being a highly specialized member of a community based on the division of labour. It is part of this specialisation process that we are in need of programmes which enable us to meet the requirements of our specific roles. To these learning programmes we apply the term “curricula” and as never before in the history of mankind the focus lies on the question which conditions have these programmes – these curricula – to meet to ensure their validity beyond today’s requirements in matching increasing complexity and rapid change tomorrow.

It is evident before this background, that the competition about the right solutions has become the central question of modern technical education and vocational training. Worldwide the following three approaches are competing with each other in this respect:

the Anglo-Saxon approach of “assessment-based” vocational-technical education,

the central European approach of “work-based” vocational-technical education, and

the Socialist-Marxist approach of polytechnical education and training.

Due to its historical affinity to socialist forms of government polytechnical education and training has lost its importance and has been hardly further discussed in the literature. Yet, the Anglo-Saxon and the central European approach of vocational/technical education and training are competing about the challenge which approach can best match the requirements of our environment including Industry 4.0.

In this quest, the Anglo-Saxon approach focusses on the mastering of “skills”, which are to be deducted from the given situation at the place of work. This procedure implies “static” scenarios, which do no longer match the actual situation at the place of work, which is liable to dynamic development. Contrary to this procedure the central European approach addresses the dynamic situation at the place of work. It targets broad “competences” which intend to master requirements that are changing due to the advancement of technologies and organizational structures. Or in other words: the Anglo-Saxon approach refers to “work” while the central European approach refers to “work-processes” in their dynamic development. This explains also the difference in the structure of the respective programmes (curricula): while the Anglo-Saxon approach in its description of the objectives of training takes “static standards” as a starting point, the central European approach has its base in “dynamic standards”, which incorporate the process of change at the place of work. This implies also moving on from a philosophy of “regulation-guided know-that” towards “experience-based know-how”.

Integral component of this dynamic approach is the “re-engineering” of the “Dual System of Training” which is regarded as the success-story of training in central Europe and beyond it. Through this “re-engineering” comprehensive access has been granted to the potential of the “Dual System” in monitoring effective training and in opening it up for the incorporation of new findings of international/comparative vocational training and technical education.

The core of this “re-engineering”

lies in the work-process.

The trainees have to be prepared to engage in the work-process and to match the challenges which result from it.

The definition of the organization of work is determined by the workflow and the qualifications of the workers. This emphasizes the process-orientation of today’s work and takes note of the overall work-processes. An analysis is then not based on an internal perspective, but follows an external view. This allows to fully integrate in-plant as well as trans-corporate data as well as flows of communication.

Summary

How can it be ensured that vocational education matches the requirements of the increasingly complex world of work? In search of a suitable approach, it has become evident that Competence-Based Training cannot provide this service since it focuses on static "work" instead of encompassing dynamic "work-processes." Consequently it is necessary to rely on the analysis of work-processes when designing a detailed curriculum for a digitalized environment and Industry 4.0. The results of the work-process analyses reflect the spectrum of requirements and are applied as the core elements for the shaping of detailed curricula. This ensures a state of the art of curricula and facilitates their swift development in matching changes in the world of work.

Biographical notes

Georg Spöttl (Author) Gert Loose (Author) Matthias Becker (Author)

Georg Spöttl is a professor for TVET and the director of the UBC, Center for Technology, Work and TVET, University of Bremen, Germany. Gert Loose, Dr., is a researcher at UBC, Center for Technology, Work and TVET, University of Bremen, Germany. Matthias Becker is a professor for TVET and the director of the Institute of Vocational Education Sciences (IBM), Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.

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Title: Work-Process Based Development of Advanced Detailed Curricula