# Evaluating Bilingual Education in Germany

CLIL Students’ General English Proficiency, EFL Self-Concept and Interest

## Summary

## Excerpt

## Table Of Contents

- Cover
- Title
- Copyright
- About the author
- About the book
- This eBook can be cited
- Table of contents
- List of figures
- List of tables
- Abbreviations and explanations of statistical and educational concepts
- 1. Introduction
- 2. Conceptual and institutional background of CLIL (in Germany)
- 2.1 Definition of CLIL and its general characteristics
- 2.2 The educational context: How CLIL in Germany became what it is today
- 2.3 CLIL in NRW: The concrete educational context
- 2.3.1 The development of CLIL provision and participation
- 2.3.2 The curricular implementation and organisation of CLIL strands in NRW
- 2.3.3 The characteristics of the CLIL programme to be evaluated in DENOCS
- 2.4 Selection processes in NRW CLIL strands: The origin of creaming effects
- 2.5 Students’ preparation for NRW CLIL strands
- 2.6 Summary and conclusion
- 3. Learning in EFL CLIL classes/strands: Theoretical background
- 3.1 Language learning
- 3.1.1 The connection between CLIL, communicative language teaching and constructivism
- 3.1.2 Constructivist language learning: Interrelation of content and language
- 3.1.3 The fulfilment of innatist demands in CLIL
- 3.1.4 Conscious language learning processes, output orientation and interaction in CLIL
- 3.1.5 CLIL as a bridge between theories of language learning in conjunction with neuroscientific claims
- 3.1.6 Authenticity, learning strategies and learner autonomy as essential assets to language learning in CLIL
- 3.2 Affective-motivational dispositions I: Academic self-concept (ASC)
- 3.2.1 The importance of the self: Views of the (language) learning sciences
- 3.2.2 The general importance of (academic) self-concept
- 3.2.3 Definition of ASC and differentiation from related constructs
- 3.2.4 The facilitative influence of ASC
- 3.2.5 Relationships between ASC and achievement: A reciprocal effects model
- 3.2.6 The structure of ASC
- 3.2.7 The internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model and its extension to the reciprocal I/E model
- 3.2.8 Processes related to external frames of reference: Big-fish-little-pond (BFLP), basking-in-reflected-glory (BIRG), Pygmalion and Galatea effects
- 3.2.9 EFL SC in the light of students’ selection and preparation for CLIL classes
- 3.2.10 Theoretical considerations on the potential impact of CLIL on EFL SC
- 3.3 Affective-motivational dispositions II: Interest in EFl classes
- 3.3.1 The construct: Definition, structure and effects of interest
- 3.3.2 The development of interest: Mechanisms explaining its decline and changes in the direction of causation between interest and achievement
- 3.3.3 The influence of CLIL on students’ interest in EFL classes
- 3.4 Voluntary out-of-school EFL learning: Spare-time/leisure English
- 3.5 Learning-related reasons for student selection and preparation: Cognitive abilities, prior knowledge, affective-motivational dispositions and thresholds
- 3.6 Further influences on language learning and achievement
- 3.6.1 Verbal cognitive abilities (VCA) as an indicator of verbal intelligence
- 3.6.2 Sex
- 3.6.3 L1 influences
- 3.7 Summary and conclusion
- 4. Learning in EFL CLIL classes/strands: Empirical findings from Germany
- 4.1 Maintaining a critical stance in the light of a conglomerate of issues
- 4.2 Overview of the nine largest studies on English CLIL streams at Gymnasien
- 4.3 Language proficiency
- 4.3.1 Cross-sectional comparisons: Are CLIL students at Gymnasien better than their peers at schools without CLIL streams?
- 4.3.2 Student selection and preparation
- 4.3.3 Longitudinal studies: What difference does CLIL actually make?
- 4.4 EFL SC
- 4.5 Interest in EFL classes
- 4.6 Voluntary out-of-school learning: Leisure/spare-time English
- 4.7 Further influences on learning and achievement
- 4.7.1 Verbal cognitive abilities (VCA)
- 4.7.2 Sex
- 4.7.3 L1 influences
- 4.8 Summary
- 5. Research void, study design, (statistical) methods and instruments
- 5.1 Current academic voids in CLIL research and measures to address them
- 5.1.1 RQ I: A priori differences (selection, preparation and class composition)
- 5.1.2 RQ II: Effects of CLIL/non-CLIL environments on general EFL proficiency
- 5.1.3 RQ III: Effects of CLIL/non-CLIL environments on EFL SC/EFL interest
- 5.2 Study design and data collection
- 5.2.1 Entire sample
- 5.2.2 Effective sample size and composition for present investigations
- 5.2.3 Non-participation/missings
- 5.3 Software, estimators, and missing values
- 5.4 Instruments
- 5.4.1 General EFL proficiency: C-tests
- 5.4.1.1 Choice of C-tests, administration and scoring
- 5.4.1.2 Statistical properties of the C-tests
- 5.4.2 Scale on EFL SC (academic self-concept)
- 5.4.2.1 Factor analyses of the EFL SC scale
- 5.4.2.2 Longitudinal factorial invariance
- 5.4.2.3 Statistical properties of the overall scale
- 5.4.3 Scale on interest in EFL classes (subject-related interest)
- 5.4.3.1 Factor analyses
- 5.4.3.2 Longitudinal factorial invariance
- 5.4.3.3 Statistical properties of the overall scale
- 5.4.4 Spare-time/leisure English
- 5.4.5 Verbal cognitive abilities (in German)
- 5.4.6 Individual items for demographic/constitutional data
- 5.5 Summary
- 6. A priori differences between CLIL, non-CLIL and regular students due to selection, preparation, and class composition (RQ I; year 6)
- 6.1 Development of an integrative model
- 6.2 Demographic/constitutional variables: Age, sex, L1 background
- 6.2.1 Descriptive and general inferential statistics
- 6.2.2 Discussion
- 6.3 Verbal cognitive abilities (in German)
- 6.3.1 Descriptive and general inferential statistics
- 6.3.2 Exploratory SEM analyses
- 6.3.3 Discussion
- 6.4 Leisure English
- 6.4.1 Descriptive and general inferential statistics
- 6.4.2 SEM analyses
- 6.4.3 Discussion
- 6.5 EFL SC
- 6.5.1 Descriptive and general inferential statistics
- 6.5.2 SEM analyses
- 6.5.3 Discussion
- 6.6 Interest in EFL classes
- 6.6.1 Descriptive and general inferential statistics
- 6.6.2 SEM analyses
- 6.6.3 Discussion
- 6.7 General EFL proficiency
- 6.7.1 Descriptive and general inferential statistics
- 6.7.2 SEM analyses
- 6.7.3 Discussion
- 6.8 Summary
- 6.8.1 Overall SEM results
- 6.8.2 Answers to RQ I
- 7. The effects of CLIL and non-CLIL environments on general EFL proficiency, EFL SC, and interest in EFL classes (RQ II/III; year 8)
- 7.1 Development of a longitudinal model
- 7.2 Demographic variables (age, sex, L1) and verbal cognitive abilities
- 7.3 Leisure English
- 7.3.1 Descriptive and general inferential statistics on the year-eight data
- 7.3.2 Longitudinal changes from year 6 to year 8
- 7.3.3 SEM analyses
- 7.3.4 Discussion
- 7.4 General EFL proficiency
- 7.4.1 Descriptive and general inferential statistics on the year-eight data
- 7.4.2 Longitudinal changes from year 6 to year 8
- 7.4.3 SEM analyses
- 7.4.4 Discussion
- 7.5 EFL SC
- 7.5.1 Descriptive and general inferential statistics on the year-eight data
- 7.5.2 Longitudinal changes
- 7.5.3 SEM analyses
- 7.5.4 Discussion
- 7.6 Interest in EFL classes
- 7.6.1 Descriptive and general inferential statistics on the year-eight data
- 7.6.2 Longitudinal changes
- 7.6.3 SEM analyses
- 7.6.4 Discussion
- 7.7 Summary
- 7.7.1 Overall SEM results
- 7.7.2 The interrelatedness of study designs, statistical approaches and results
- 7.7.3 Profiles of low- and high-proficiency CLIL students
- 7.7.4 Answers to RQ II and RQ III
- 8. Final evaluation and future perspectives
- 8.1 General summary
- 8.2 Limitations, further analyses and future research
- 8.3 Implications and conclusion
- References
- Appendix
- A Additional (statistical) details on the year-six data
- A.1 Alternative models of general EFL proficiency: Changes in strengths and patterns of influences when omitting central variables
- A.2 Comparison of results obtained from SEM, path and regression models
- B Additional (statistical) details on the year-eight data
- Series index

Figure 8: CLIL in the NRW school system: Its implementation and no. of lessons

Figure 11: Exam grades of CLIL and non-CLIL students who participated in the ministerial evaluation

Figure 12: Location of the schools in North-Rhine Westphalia

Figure 13: Composition of the entire sample *(N* = 1,398)

Figure 14: Composition of the effective sample *(N* = 953) used in the thesis at hand

Figure 15: A basic model of general EFL proficiency, EFL SC and interest in EFL classes

Figure 16: An extended model of general EFL proficiency, EFL SC and interest in EFL classes including leisure English ← 17 | 18 →

Figure 21: Complete model in year 6

Figure 22: Main and indirect effects involving *KFT* sum scores

Figure 23: Relative frequencies of Rasch EFL proficiency scores according to groups in year 6

Figure 24: SEM paths with statistically significant β coefficients in year 6

Figure 25: Complete model in year 8

Figure 27: Average Rasch general EFL proficiency scores in years 6, 7 and 8 according to groups

Figure 28: SEM paths with statistically significant β coefficients in year 8

Figure 29: Illustration of significant main effects (*p* < .05) and relationships among variables

Figure 30: Model 1 with group affiliation (CLIL/non-CLIL class) as the only predictors

Figure 31: Model 2 with three to four predictors per outcome variable

Figure 32: Model 3 with four to five predictors per outcome variable

Figure 33: Graphic illustration of model 4

Figure 38: Model 1 with CLIL environment and non-CLIL class as the only predictors

Figure 39: Model 2 with prior measures in addition to CLIL environment and non-CLIL class as predictor ← 18 | 19 →

Figure 41: Model 5 equals the cross-sectional model of year 6 (omission of prior measures)

Figure 42: Complete model in year 8

Figure 43: Paths of SEM with statistically significant β coefficients in year 8 ← 19 | 20 → ← 20 | 21 →

Table 1: Systematic overview of the CLIL programme to be evaluated and alternative configurations

Table 4: The nine largest studies on EFL CLIL streams at *Gymnasien* (by CLIL sample size)

Table 6: Overview of Bredenbröker’s longitudinal results

Table 7: EFL achievement at the beginning of year 8

Table 8: Overview of the constructs incorporated in the student questionnaire

Table 9: Student participation in years 6 and 8 according to groups

Table 12: Demographic/constitutional properties of the sample and missings according to years

Table 13: Descriptive measurement properties of C-test batteries according to years

Table 14: Measurement properties of C-test #A (anchor test; 24 items)

Table 15: Collection of items for the measurement of EFL SC

Table 16: Statistical properties of the EFL SC scale in years 6 and 8

Table 17: Results of the tests of factorial invariance of the eight-item EFL SC scale

Table 18: Descriptive statistics of the EFL SC scale in years 6 and 8

Table 19: Collection of items for the measurement of students’ subject-related interest ← 21 | 22 →

Table 20: Statistical properties of the scale “interest in EFL classes” in years 6 and 8

Table 22: Descriptive statistics of the interest scale in years 6 and 8

Table 23: Descriptive statistics of *KFT*-scores in year 7

Table 26: Demographic variables according to groups in year 6

Table 28: Descriptive statistics of students’ *KFT* sum scores according to groups in year 7

Table 32: β coefficients for predictors of leisure English scores in incrementally more complex SEMs

Table 33: Descriptive statistics of students’ mean EFL SC scores according to groups in year 6

Table 35: β coefficients for predictors of EFL SC in incrementally more complex SEMs

Table 39: Descriptive statistics of Rasch EFL proficiency scores according to groups in year 6

Table 40: Distribution of Rasch EFL proficiency scores according to groups in year 6 after a median split of the overall sample ← 22 | 23 →

Table 44: Overview of direct comparisons without covariates between subgroups in year 6

Table 45: Demographic variables according to groups

Table 49: β coefficients for predictors of leisure English scores in incrementally more complex SEMs

Table 50: β coefficients for predictors of leisure English scores from SEMs in years 6 and 8

Table 57: β coefficients for predictors of general EFL proficiency scores from SEMs in years 6 and 8

Table 58: Descriptive statistics of students’ EFL SC scores according to groups in year 8 ← 23 | 24 →

Table 59: Dependent-samples *t* tests for longitudinal changes in EFL SC scores from years 6 to 8

Table 60: β coefficients for predictors of EFL SC scores in incrementally more complex SEMs

Table 62: β coefficients for predictors of EFL SC scores from SEMs in years 6 and 8

Table 63: Descriptive statistics of students’ interest scores according to groups in year 8

Table 64: Dependent-samples *t* tests for longitudinal changes in interest scores from years 6 to 8

Table 67: β coefficients for predictors of interest in EFL classes scores from SEMs in years 6 and 8

Table 69: Profiles of low- and high-proficiency CLIL students

Table 70: Profiles of low-proficiency CLIL students and matched regular students

Table 72: Overview of direct comparisons without covariates between subgroups in year 8

Table 74: The typical/average CLIL, regular and non-CLIL student in years 6 and 8

Table 75: The typical/average CLIL, regular and non-CLIL student in years 6 and 8

Table 76: Overview of direct comparisons without covariates between subgroups in years 6 ← 24 | 25 →

Table 83: β coefficients for predictors in incrementally more complex SEMs

Table 85: β coefficients from SEM, path and regression models for the sample in year 6

## Details

- Pages
- 582
- Year
- 2016
- ISBN (ePUB)
- 9783631694152
- ISBN (PDF)
- 9783653064605
- ISBN (MOBI)
- 9783631694169
- ISBN (Hardcover)
- 9783631671290
- DOI
- 10.3726/978-3-653-06460-5
- Language
- English
- Publication date
- 2016 (July)
- Published
- Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2016. 582 pp., 96 b/w tables, 36 b/w ill., 7 coloured ill.