Motivational Issues in Teaching

With special emphasis on Turkey

by Zeynep Kiziltepe (Author)
©2019 Monographs 136 Pages


This book draws on a review of literature on the motivational research from multiple countries with special emphasis on Turkey. It provides information to further our understanding of why people decide to become teachers, and after they become teachers why they stay in the profession or leave it. Studies about teacher motivation, and demotivation are shared to bring to light the scope and nature of this issue. It offers recommendations for administrators and policy makers about the preparation of teachers for the profession, about the in-service trainings, and the coping strategies needed for teacher demotivation, burnout, and stress in the profession. It is strongly recommended as a resource to be used in educational sciences, educational psychology, and comparative education related classes.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication Page
  • Epigraph
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Abstract
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • Citability of the eBook
  • Contents
  • 1 The Teacher Education System in Turkey
  • History of the Teacher Education System in Turkey
  • Before the Foundation of the Republic in 1923
  • After the Foundation of the Republic in 1923
  • Essential Teacher Training Institutions and Major Turning Points
  • Köy Enstitüleri (Village Institutes): An Authentic Project
  • John Dewey and His Report on Teacher Education in Turkey
  • Olgunlaşma Enstitüleri (Maturation Institutes)
  • The Role of Teachers in the Education System: An Issue of Motivation
  • 2 Motivation
  • Defining Motivation
  • Need-Reduction Theories
  • The Psychoanalytic Theory of Motivation
  • The Drive Theory
  • Expectancy-Value Theories
  • Lewin’s Field Theory
  • Achievement Theory
  • Social Learning Theory and Personal Responsibility
  • Keller’s ARCS Motivation Theory
  • Mastery and Growth Theories
  • Attribution Theory
  • Trait and Humanistic Theories
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  • Alderfer’s ERG Theory
  • 3 Teacher Motivation
  • Work Motivation
  • Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
  • Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Theory
  • Motivation to Choose the Teaching Profession
  • Teacher Job Satisfaction
  • Factors Affecting Teacher Motivation
  • Student-Based Motivators
  • Administration-Based Motivators
  • Decision-Making and Punish-Reward Systems
  • Professional Development
  • Work Environment
  • Teacher-Based Motivators
  • Gender
  • Age and Years of Experience
  • System-Based Motivators
  • Perceptions of the Teaching Profession
  • 4 Teacher Demotivation, Stress, and Burnout
  • Teacher Demotivation
  • Sources of Teacher Demotivation
  • Student-Based Demotivators
  • Student Misbehavior
  • Teacher-Based Demotivators
  • Self-efficacy
  • Gender
  • Age and Years of Experience
  • Department/Field
  • Teachers’ Expectancy Level
  • Classroom Management Problems
  • Personal Issues
  • Inadequacy in Using Technology
  • Administration-Based Demotivators
  • Lack of Administrative Support and Management and Communication Skills
  • Teacher Overload
  • Education System–Based Demotivators
  • School Type
  • School Level
  • Appointment Problems
  • Low Income
  • Low Status
  • Teacher Stress
  • Teacher Burnout
  • Possible Effects of Demotivation, Stress, and Burnout on Teachers
  • Illnesses
  • Detachment and Attrition
  • Misbehavior
  • 5 Towards a Better Teaching Climate
  • Strategies at the System Level
  • Salary
  • Class Size
  • Using the Latest Technology
  • The Selection of Teacher Candidates
  • Increasing the Quality of Teacher Education
  • Increasing the Quality of In-Service Training
  • Decreasing the Effects of Politics on Educational Policies
  • Strategies at the Individual Level
  • Coping Strategies
  • Direct-Action Coping Strategies
  • Palliative Coping Strategies
  • Avoidance and Distancing Coping Strategies
  • Teachers’ Choice of Coping Strategies
  • The Level of Perceived Stress
  • Gender
  • Type of School
  • Years of Job Experience
  • Age
  • References
  • Index

1 The Teacher Education System in Turkey

Abstract: Chapter 1 provides a short history of the Turkish teacher education system starting with the reign of Sultan Mehmet in the fifteenth century until the present time. It looks at how the first teacher education schools were established, what courses students were taking, and how the system developed.

Keywords: higher education council, madrasas, maturation institutes, teacher education, teacher schools, training programs, village institutes, faculties of education

Teachers are the only people
who save nations.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

History of the Teacher Education System in Turkey

Before the Foundation of the Republic in 1923

The first indication of teaching being an independent profession and having a separate program in higher education goes back to the second half of the fifteenth century during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror, 1432–1481). He established a program within Eyüp and Ayasofya madrasas to train teachers to teach in the primary schools called sübyan mektepleri (schools for children). In that program, as an important innovation at that time, there were two new courses named adab-i mubahase (discussion rules) and usul-i tedris (teaching methods). The existence of these new courses gave a new value and meaning to the teaching profession. The other courses were mathematics, history, geography, literature, and logic. After Sultan Mehmet, this initiative ended, and the belief that teachers should receive special training also waned.

In the nineteenth century, during the reign of Sultan Abdülmecit (1839–1861), teaching found acceptance again as a unique and distinctive profession. With this understanding, a teachers’ college for males called Darülmuallimin-i Rüştiye (Teacher Training Secondary School) opened in 1848. This school trained people to be teachers in high schools. The main course in such schools was usul-i tedris (teaching methods). A vocational school for the sole purpose of training teachers was a new concept, which led to the understanding that teaching was a profession ←21 | 22→in itself. The standards for teacher education in this school began with a teaching program, and regulations came into force in 1851, including the following:

Education in the college shall last three years. Students shall be admitted to the school through exams. Scholarships in the substantial amounts shall be provided to highly qualified students to increase the appeal and standard of the school. Furthermore, it shall be ensured that the students abandon their usual learning practices based on scholastic methods. Until their appointment, the new graduates shall be kept at the school to ensure that they acquire the necessary expertise and experience. During their stay, a monthly allowance shall also be provided; and they shall be given further training (Akyüz, 2018; pp. 3–20).

The opening of this school meant that almost all literate people became teachers. However, graduates of this teacher training school had priority. This approach was a very important step for the professionalization of teaching about 300 years after Sultan Mehmet started the process. When considering the primary school teaching model of Sultan Mehmet and the secondary school teaching model of Sultan Abdülmecid together, it is clear that they are the pioneer models of today’s primary and secondary school teacher education in Turkey.


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2019 (April)
Theories of motivation burnout career choice higher education council Teacher demotivation Teacher motivation coping strategies
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2019. 136 S.

Biographical notes

Zeynep Kiziltepe (Author)

Zeynep (Avanoğlu) Kızıltepe is currently a full professor in Boğaziçi University, Faculty of Education, Department of Educational Sciences. She received her BA and MA from the same university but got her PhD from University of Exeter, UK. She has been working in Boğazici University since 1996 offering courses on educational psychology, psychology of learning, classroom management, teaching methods, teacher motivation and demotivation, occupational stress of teachers, teaching methods, and faculty development. She has papers published in Turkey, Belgium, Japan, India, and the United States; a course book on educational psychology named Öğretişim published in Turkey.


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138 pages