Higher Education Modelling

Development, Application and Perspectives

by Michaela Gläß (Author)
©2016 Thesis XVII, 177 Pages
Series: Internationale Märkte, Volume 20


This book deals with the feasibility analysis of market-oriented Higher Education Institutions based on the data of international field survey. The topics under examinations require the use of qualitative methods: guideline-oriented open expert interviews in different countries for data collection, content analysis of the survey data, and proposal of a Balanced Scorecard application in the Higher Education Institution management. Based on the elements of New Public Management methodology the author elaborates a detailed development plan usable as a model to restructure a Higher Education Institution to cope with the challenges of the Future.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstrakt
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Tables and Figures
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Higher Education Institutions in Germany and Selected Countries
  • 2.1 Presentation of the Problem
  • 2.2 Higher Education Institutions and the Education Market
  • 2.2.1 Higher Education Institutions Types
  • 2.2.2 Financing and Sponsoring
  • 2.2.3 Lifelong Education
  • 2.2.4 Human Resources
  • 2.3 New Public Management
  • 2.4 Future Developments
  • 2.4.1 Development Trends
  • 2.4.2 Changes in the Higher Education Institutions Landscape
  • 2.4.3 Changes in Teaching
  • 2.4.4 Educational changes in terms of employability
  • 3 Goals and Methods of the Thesis
  • 3.1 Goals
  • 3.2 Methodology
  • 3.2.1 Data Collection
  • 3.2.2 Data Analysis
  • 3.2.3 Conceptual modelling tools
  • 4 Results and Discussion
  • 4.1 The Education Sector as an Industry
  • 4.2 The Higher Education Institution Development Plan
  • 4.2.1 Set out Vision, Mission, Values and a related Strategy
  • 4.2.2 Create an Organisational Culture
  • 4.2.3 Analyse, follow and influence the market - HEI Marketing and Public Relation
  • 4.2.4 Streamline Processes
  • 4.2.5 Use Effective HR Management
  • 4.2.6 Increase Third-Party Financing
  • 4.2.7 Public Relations
  • 4.2.8 Find Other Distribution Channels
  • 5 Theoretical and practical contributions of the Thesis
  • 6 Conclusion
  • Rezumé
  • Úvod
  • Súčasný stav výskumu
  • Výskumná otázka a cieľ výskumu
  • Výskumný prístup
  • Zber údajov
  • Nástroje konceptuálneho modelovania
  • Výsledky výskumu a závery
  • References
  • Appendices
  • A.1 Appendix – Acadamic Scorecard
  • A.2 Appendix – Expert Interview
  • A.3 Appendix – Category Scheme
  • A.4 Appendix – List of interviewed experts
  • A.5 Appendix – Evaluation of Expert Interviews
  • A.6 Appendix – Content Transcriptions

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List of Abbreviations

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Tables and Figures


Table 1: HEI in Germany

Table 2: The Funding of Higher Education in Slovakia

Table 3: Tool-box of the New Public Management

Table 4: Multiple Strategies for Using Multimedia channels

Table 5: Education Exports (own table)


Figure 1: Development of spending on R&D

Figure 2: Development of spending on R&D, teaching, pensions and medical treatment

Figure 3: Analysis of the HE Industry (own design)

Figure 4: Strength/Weakness Matrix (own design)

Figure 5: SWOT-Matrix (own design)

Figure 6: PEST Factors (own design)

Figure 7: Strategy TU Munich (own design)

Figure 8: Balanced Scorecard for HEI (own desgin)

Figure 9: Strategy Map (own design)

Figure 10: Simplified Structure of the HEI of the Future (own design)

Figure 11: Zjednodušená štruktúra VŠI budúcnosti

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1 Introduction

The European higher education institutions (HEI) have experienced a phase of transition recently. The differences between universities and polytechnics are decreasing, whereas the differences among universities are increasing. The HEI will have to face strategic challenges within the next few years. These challenges result from changing circumstances and demographic interdependencies. The demographic changes show a clear shift in the age pyramid as well as an increasing demand for skilled personnel in the industry. In future, there will be more students and older students.

Commercial efficiency, output-orientation, a culture of service, human resources – these terms are familiar to executives and students of economy. It is a new development that these ideas have reached areas of the society to which they were alien before. Many HEI use a new phraseology to show how modern they are. Authorities are turned into agencies, students become clients, and HEI are called service providers these days.

Organisational procedures are subject to controlling and benchmarking as in the private sector. There is also a growing demand for flexible extra-occupational online courses. Academic institutions will have to adapt the courses they offer, their marketing and organisation to the changing requirements of the students. Thus, the HEI are going to act in a competitive environment in which they will be the more successful the more competitive they are.

The reasons for this transition are the far reaching changes that have been discussed under the heading ‘economisation’ for the past few years. This discussion raises the central issue of how economical thinking could be applied to the sector of tertiary education. The opinions concerning this issue are divided. Some ask for entrepreneurial thinking by HEI as they are convinced that only this will enable the institutions to survive. Others see that as a contradiction to the fundamental values of HEI. They believe that there cannot be a compromise between entrepreneurial thinking and the fundamental educational goal of HEI.

As a focus of my research topic, I have selected the HEI of the Future. I will develop the model of HEI of the Future, and then a set of recommendations on its implementation within the current European HEI environment with particular regard to conditions in Germany but applicable in other EU countries as well. Therefore, I chose operations of the European HEI in the 21st century and their changing environment as the subject of my research. I will show the challenges the HEI will have to face and how they can develop strategies and methods to ← 1 | 2 → deal with them. Since I presume that HEI have to act in a more market-oriented manner, I shall focus on that particular aspect. I envisage a profit-oriented, modularised HEI with a strong sense for marketing. This model will be tailored to the German market, but it will be applicable to other countries, as well, with only a few changes.

For that purpose, I will analyse HEI types from various countries, such as the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands, Canada, Slovakia and Germany (chapter 2) to find out about the general trends in the HE sector. I will then introduce New Public Management as a management tool as it is relevant for the sector (chapter 2.3) and then outline certain development trends for HEI (chapter 2.4).

Chapter 3 explains the scientific method of this thesis and its purpose in detail. The design of the methodological research has a cognitive interest and is intended as a qualitative study. The empirical study intends an exploratory description and explanation of the social object. I chose expert interviews as my method of research. For the data analysis of the transcribed interviews, I used the method of analysis of qualitative content. This procedure is carried out guided by my interest in the results of the data analysis, not by a particular theory.

So far, there has not been any detailed analysis of the market-oriented HEI – especially in Germany. You can find general philosophical discussions about the market-orientation of HEI, but there are no descriptions which explain the HEI of the Future in detail. This thesis is meant to contribute in the research on filling this gap. I shall present and discuss the results of the fieldwork in chapter 4. This chapter contains a detailed development plan that could be used as a model to organise the HEI of the Future (chapter 4.2). The theoretical and practical results of my thesis will be outlined in chapter 5.


XVII, 177
ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2016 (November)
Balanced Scorecard Economization of Education Development Plan Education Institution Lifelong Learning Public Management
Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2016. XVII, 177 pp., 5 b/w tables, 11 b/w ill.

Biographical notes

Michaela Gläß (Author)

Michaela Gläß graduated in Studies of Business Administration and Distance studies of "International Business" at the Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau where she is working as Senior Lecturer. Her Doctoral studies took place at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava. She is also Lecturer at the Faculty of Economic Sciences, Alexander-Dubček-University Trenčín, Faculty of Social and Economic Relations.


Title: Higher Education Modelling