An Introduction to the Entertainment Industry

Second Edition

by Andi Stein (Author) Beth Bingham Georges (Author)
©2018 Textbook X, 254 Pages


Entertainment is big business. Whether it’s a favorite television show, an artist at the top of the music charts, a blockbuster film, or a hometown sports team, people love entertainment. In this introduction to the entertainment industry, Andi Stein and Beth Bingham Georges provide a glimpse inside the industry to show how each segment operates as well as the challenges and trends within the business. Each chapter addresses a different segment of the entertainment industry including:
Theme Parks
The book is designed as an introductory text for entertainment studies courses and as an overview of the industry for those looking to pursue careers in the field of entertainment.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author(s)/editor(s)
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • List of Figures
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to the Entertainment Industry
  • Issues and Trends within the Industry
  • Understanding Our Audience
  • Advanced Technology
  • Big Media Companies
  • Vertical Integration
  • Horizontal Integration
  • Synergy
  • Copyright Concerns
  • Power of Research
  • Obsessed with Entertainment
  • Film
  • Television
  • Radio
  • Theater
  • Music
  • Museums
  • Theme Parks
  • Sports
  • Travel and Tourism
  • Shopping
  • Gambling and Casino Gaming
  • Video and Online Games
  • Publishing
  • Event Planning
  • What’s Been Left Out?
  • Notes
  • Part I: Electronic Media as Entertainment
  • Chapter 2: Film
  • Ben Hur
  • Media Consolidation
  • History and Background
  • Early Years
  • Golden Era for the Studios
  • End of the Studio System
  • Film Industry Today
  • How the Industry Works
  • Independent Films
  • High-concept Films
  • Publicity, Marketing, and Press Junkets
  • Orchestrating Film Promotion
  • Creating Marketing Buzz
  • Developing Publicity Campaigns
  • Organizing Press Junkets
  • Demographics
  • Release Schedule
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Piracy
  • Impact of Streaming
  • Attendance
  • Runaway Production
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Preproduction
  • Production
  • Postproduction
  • Future Outlook
  • Global Film Market
  • Environmentally Sound Practices
  • Franchise Films
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations/Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Chapter 3: Television
  • History and Background
  • Early Television
  • Television Gains in Popularity
  • More Channels, More Choices
  • Two New Networks
  • Cable Television
  • Television Loves Reality
  • Television News
  • Spanish-Language Television
  • Digital and High-Definition Television
  • Television Today
  • How the Television Industry Operates
  • Network Television
  • O&Os
  • Network Affiliates
  • Independents
  • Public Television
  • Ratings
  • What the Ratings Mean
  • Sweeps
  • New Shows
  • Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
  • Challenges and Trends
  • The Cord-Cutting Effect
  • Second Screens
  • Streaming and Original Content
  • Binge-Watching
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Future Outlook
  • Security Issues
  • New Directions for Cable
  • Viewer-Centric Content
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Websites
  • Notes
  • Chapter 4: Radio
  • History and Background
  • Early Radio
  • Radio’s Golden Age
  • Radio Regulation
  • Television Threatens Radio
  • National Public Radio
  • Threat of Satellite Radio
  • HD Radio
  • Radio Today
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Demographics
  • Radio Consolidation
  • Relationship with Music Industry
  • Radio Formats
  • Web Streaming
  • On the Go Radio
  • Crisis Response
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Station Manager
  • Business Manager
  • Community Service Director
  • Music Director
  • Promotions/Community Relations Director
  • Social Media Specialist
  • Producer
  • Announcer/Deejay
  • Programming Director
  • News Department
  • Sales
  • Future Outlook
  • The Connected Car
  • Competition for Satellite Radio
  • More Creative Content
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Part II: Arts and Leisure Entertainment
  • Chapter 5: Theater
  • History and Background
  • Early Beginnings
  • Influence of the Church
  • European and Elizabethan Theater
  • Growth and Development
  • Early U.S. Theater
  • U.S. Theater Today
  • Broadway
  • Regional Theater
  • Children’s Theater
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Planning the Production
  • Financing and Fundraising
  • Appealing to Audiences
  • Taking a Cue from Hollywood
  • Raiding the Jukebox
  • Collaborating with Television
  • Streaming to the Masses
  • Developing Innovative Marketing Strategies
  • Out-of-the-Box Promotion
  • Digital Media Marketing
  • Targeting Audiences with Specialized Marketing
  • Impact of Technology
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Performance Jobs
  • Production Jobs
  • Administrative Jobs
  • Education and Training
  • Future Outlook
  • Appealing to Millennials
  • Expanding Diversity
  • Reaching Out to Young Audiences
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Websites
  • Notes
  • Chapter 6: Music
  • History and Background
  • Early Years
  • Radio and Rock ’n Roll
  • Digital Music
  • Oligopoly
  • Digital Downloads
  • ASCAP and BMI
  • iPod and Digital Sales
  • Music Industry Today
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Slumping CD Sales
  • Music Stores Closing
  • Resurgence of Vinyl
  • Piracy
  • 360-Degree Deals
  • Live Music Festivals
  • Social Media Marketing
  • Employment Opportunities
  • A&R
  • Producer
  • Marketing
  • Public Relations
  • Social Media Marketing
  • Advertising
  • Distribution/Sales
  • Future Outlook
  • Streaming Will Emerge a Winner
  • Virtual Reality Adds New Possibilities
  • DIY Equals Success
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Chapter 7: Museums
  • History and Background
  • Early Museums
  • From Private to Public
  • U.S. Museum Development
  • A Change of Focus
  • Museums Today
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Funding and Fundraising
  • Primary Sources of Revenue
  • Alternate Sources of Revenue
  • Engaging Audiences
  • Increased Interactivity
  • Social Media
  • Traveling Exhibitions
  • Special Events and Partnerships
  • Educational Outreach
  • Theft Prevention
  • Ownership Issues
  • Virtual Museums
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Museum Administration
  • Collections Management
  • Museum Volunteers
  • Education and Training
  • Future Outlook
  • Enhanced Museum Design
  • Digitized Collections
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Chapter 8: Theme Parks
  • History and Background
  • Early Amusement Parks
  • Development of the Trolley Park
  • Rides and Attractions
  • Depression and Change
  • Birth of the Modern-day Theme Park
  • New Park Growth
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Safety as Priority
  • Routine Inspections
  • Employee Training
  • Visitor Safety Education
  • Marketing and Promotion
  • Social Media Marketing
  • Customer Discounts
  • Advertising Campaigns
  • Special Events
  • Product Merchandising
  • Competition and Innovation
  • Immersive Experiences
  • Intellectual Property-based Attractions
  • Thrill-Packed Roller Coasters
  • Virtual Reality
  • Upgraded Customer Service
  • Ride Wait Times
  • Better Food
  • VIP Experiences
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Recruitment Practices
  • Advancement within the Industry
  • Future Outlook
  • Eco-Friendly Theme Parks
  • Asian Expansion
  • Make Way for the Millennials
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Part III: Recreation as Entertainment
  • Chapter 9: Sports
  • History and Background
  • The Beginning of Sports
  • Early European Sports
  • Sports in the United States
  • Baseball
  • Football
  • Basketball
  • Ice Hockey
  • Minor and Independent League Sports
  • Non-League Professional Sports
  • Collegiate Sports
  • Women and Sports
  • International Sports
  • Olympics
  • Other International Events
  • Recreational Sports
  • Fantasy Sports
  • Sports and Media
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Marketing and Promotion
  • Linking Products to Sports
  • Courting Corporate Sponsorships
  • Engaging Fans with Online and Social Media
  • Media Coverage of Sports
  • Television Coverage of Sports
  • Impact of Live Streaming
  • Unruly Fan Behavior
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Team Players
  • Management and Administration
  • Marketing and Promotion
  • Sports Agents
  • Recreation/Fitness Specialists
  • Sports Media Professionals
  • Education and Training
  • Future Outlook
  • Making Greater Use of Big Data
  • Enhancing the Spectator Experience
  • Impact of Cord-Cutting on Sports Coverage
  • Recreational Sports for Boomers
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Chapter 10: Travel and Tourism
  • History and Background
  • The Beginnings of Travel
  • Impact of Religion and Trade
  • The Grand Tour
  • Early Travel in the United States
  • Impact of the Railroads
  • Establishment of the National Park Service
  • Major Developments in Travel and Tourism
  • Impact of the Automobile
  • Development of the Airline Industry
  • Travel and Tourism Today
  • Creation of State and City Tourism Bureaus
  • Expansion of Lodging and Accommodations
  • Rise of the Cruise Industry
  • Growing Interest in All-in-One Travel
  • Changing Role of the Travel Agent
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Effects of an Unstable Economy
  • Airline Costs
  • Currency Exchange
  • Impact of Terrorism on Travel
  • Creation of the Travel Promotion Act
  • Technology and the Industry
  • Online Bookings
  • Impact of Technology on Travel Agents
  • Innovation in Accommodations
  • Sharing Economy Lodging
  • Rise of Specialty Travel
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Tour Operators
  • Transportation Companies
  • Lodging and Accommodations
  • Cruise Lines
  • Education and Training
  • Future Outlook
  • Increased Security Measures
  • Upgrades in Technology
  • Marketing to Diverse Demographics
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Online Travel Resources
  • Notes
  • Chapter 11: Shopping
  • History and Background
  • Shopping Malls
  • TV-Based Home Shopping
  • Online Shopping/E-Commerce
  • Location-Based Entertainment
  • Power Towns
  • Lifestyle Centers
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Fluctuating American Economy
  • Increased Traffic to Discount Chains and Warehouse Stores
  • Black Friday/Cyber Monday
  • Pop-Up Shops
  • Showcase Stores
  • Influences on Online Shopping
  • Shopping Vacation Packages
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Administration
  • Mall Designers/Architects
  • Marketing
  • Security
  • Store Managers/Employees
  • Online Customer Service Agents
  • Personal Shoppers
  • Future Outlook
  • Hard Times for Traditional Malls
  • Connecting Through Social Media
  • Socially-Responsible Shopping
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Part IV: Interactive Entertainment
  • Chapter 12: Gambling and Casino Gaming
  • History and Background
  • Early Beginnings
  • The Rise of Gambling in the United States
  • A New Kind of Casino
  • Growth and Expansion of the Industry
  • Other Types of Gambling
  • The Impact of Electronic Media
  • Modern-Day Gambling and Gaming
  • Types of Legalized Gambling
  • Commercial Casino Gaming
  • Native American Indian Gaming
  • Lotteries
  • Pari-Mutuel Wagering
  • Charitable Gaming
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Effect of the Economy
  • Millennials and the Market
  • Growing Influence of Macau
  • Decline of Atlantic City
  • Indian Casino Development and Expansion
  • Risk Management
  • Video Surveillance
  • Preventing Terrorism
  • Crisis Management
  • Overcoming Negative Perceptions of Gambling
  • Problem Gambling
  • Online Gaming
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Casino Employment
  • Employment in Other Industry Sectors
  • Education and Training
  • Future Outlook
  • New Approach to Slot Machines
  • Upscale Experiences for Non-Gamblers
  • Online Gaming
  • Horse and Greyhound Racing
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Casino Gaming
  • Horse and Greyhound Racing
  • Lotteries
  • Problem Gambling
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Chapter 13: Video and Online Games
  • History and Background
  • Early Beginnings
  • Golden Age of Arcades
  • The Video Game Crash
  • The Rebound: Console Wars
  • 32 Bits, 64 Bits, and Beyond
  • Personal Computer (PC) Games
  • Mobile Games
  • Other Uses for Video Games
  • Exercise
  • Education
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Industry Leaders
  • Smaller, Independent Companies
  • Beyond the Boys
  • Gaming as Spectator Sport
  • Augmented Reality Games
  • Regulations and Community Outreach
  • Piracy Prevention
  • Gaming Addiction
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Game Designer/Programmer/Artist
  • Quality Assurance/Game Testing
  • Consumer Liaison/Advocate
  • Other Careers
  • Education and Training
  • Future Outlook
  • Mobile App Development
  • Streaming Games
  • Virtual Reality
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations/Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Part V: Communication as Entertainment
  • Chapter 14: Publishing
  • History and Background
  • Origins of Publishing
  • Establishment of the Penny Press
  • Advances in Printing Technology
  • Impact of Computers
  • Book Publishing
  • Trade Books
  • PreK–12 Instructional Materials
  • Higher Education Course Materials
  • Professional Publishing
  • Mail-order Books
  • E-books
  • Audio Books
  • Mail-Order Book Clubs
  • Magazine Publishing
  • Newspaper Publishing
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Making a Profit in Book Publishing
  • Influences on Book Publishing
  • Generating Magazine Revenues
  • Magazine Sales
  • Exploring New Revenue Streams
  • Coping with Change in the Newspaper Industry
  • Online Media
  • Declining Advertising
  • Reconfigured Priorities
  • Employment Opportunities
  • Book Publishing
  • Magazine Publishing
  • Newspaper Publishing
  • Future Outlook
  • Promising Prospects for Book Publishing
  • Magazines and Millennials
  • Rethinking the Traditional Newspaper Model
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Book Publishing Industry
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Magazine Industry
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Newspaper Industry
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Chapter 15: Event Planning
  • History and Background
  • Social Events
  • Fundraising Events
  • Public Events
  • Company Events
  • Corporate Meetings
  • Conventions and Trade Shows
  • Special Occasions
  • Challenges and Trends
  • Getting Organized
  • Identifying Purpose and Audience
  • Managing Time
  • Managing Money
  • Putting the Pieces Together
  • Promoting and Publicizing the Event
  • Traditional Media
  • Social Media
  • Dealing with the Unexpected
  • Going Green
  • Employment Opportunities
  • In-House Event Planners
  • Event Planning Agencies
  • Education and Training
  • Future Outlook
  • Expanding Technology
  • Building Event Communities
  • New Skills for New Challenges
  • Summary
  • Additional Resources
  • Associations and Organizations
  • Job-Hunting Resources
  • Books
  • Magazines and Trade Publications
  • Notes
  • Contributors
  • Index

| vii →


Figure 1: Top Movie Studios

Figure 2: Admissions by Age Group

Figure 3: Ethnicity of Moviegoers

Figure 4: Top 10 Reality TV Shows of All Time

Figure 5: 10 Most-Watched TV Episodes of All Time

Figure 6: U.S. Radio Formats

Figure 7: Theater Internship Programs in the U.S. and London

Figure 8: Top Selling Albums of All Time

Figure 9: Top Selling Artists

Figure 10: A Sampling of Museums around the World

Figure 11: U.S. Colleges and Universities Offering Advanced Degrees in Museum Studies

Figure 12: U.S. Museums Offering Internship Programs

Figure 13: Top 20 Amusement/Theme Parks Worldwide

Figure 14: U.S. Colleges and Universities Offering Programs in Sports Management/Administration and Sports Marketing

Figure 15: Top 20 Most Visited Cities in the World

Figure 16: U.S. Colleges and Universities Offering Programs in Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality Management

Figure 17: 20 Largest Shopping Centers in the United States (Ranked by Gross Leasable Space)

Figure 18: Top 20 Retail Websites in the United States (Sales in U.S. Millions)

Figure 19: Top 20 U.S. Gambling Markets (Casinos and Racetracks)

Figure 20: Top 10 Selling Console Games of All Time

Figure 21: Top 10 Highest Grossing Mobile Games

Figure 22: Top 20 Popular Magazines by Circulation (Based on Copies Distributed)

Figure 23: Types of Events

| ix →


The authors would like to thank Genelle Belmas for her work on Chapter 13, Video and Online Games, Tom Clanin for his work on Chapter 14, Publishing, and Anthony Tyre for his work on the professional profiles. We would also like to thank our editor Kathryn Harrison and production manager Jackie Pavlovic for their guidance and assistance with the book. We are extremely grateful to all the people who agreed to be featured in the professional profiles in each chapter.

| 1 →


Introduction to the Entertainment Industry

Entertainment is big business. Whether it’s a favorite television show, an artist at the top of the music charts, a best-selling book, or a hometown sports team, people love entertainment—and it shows.

Competition for attention and money is fierce in the entertainment industry. Today’s consumers don’t have much additional time in a typical day for more entertainment. They are saturated with entertainment options. So, when one segment of the entertainment market grows, another segment might decline.

Working in entertainment can be exciting, rewarding, glamorous, and a lot of hard work. Entertainment industry executives understand the multitude of options available to consumers when it comes to entertainment. Because of this, those in the entertainment business take their work and their careers very seriously.

The following chapters will examine many different aspects of the entertainment industry to understand how it operates. From television to publishing and from theme parks to shopping, one of the best ways to understand the industry is to know about its history. This book will take a look back and a look forward. It will analyze the challenges and trends facing each area of entertainment. It will also discuss career options. All of this in an attempt to provide a competitive edge to those entering the field and hoping to find their dream job in the world of entertainment.

The journey through the entertainment industry will start with electronic media including film, television, and radio. It will make its way into arts and leisure entertainment and explore theater, music, museums, and theme parks. From there it continues to recreational entertainment such as sports, travel, and shopping. Then it’s on to interactive entertainment, which includes gambling and video games. Finally, the journey wraps up with communications as entertainment with publishing and event planning. ← 1 | 2 →

This tour of the entertainment industry will introduce individuals who are working in different areas of the field. Each chapter will feature profiles of people currently employed in the entertainment industry, providing a glimpse of their daily work lives and showing how they got a foot in the door.

Job options that are available within the various sectors of the entertainment industry will be discussed. Each chapter will provide information about the different types of jobs that exist within the industry to show there is no single path to a career in entertainment. An overview of job possibilities will be presented, as well as available opportunities—such as internships—to make these possibilities a reality.

The end of each chapter will include resources to help jump-start a career in entertainment. These include lists of associations, trade publications, books, websites, and job-hunting sites related to the topics in each chapter.

Get ready to learn about the many dimensions of the field of entertainment. As they say in the business: Lights! Camera! Action!

Issues and Trends within the Industry

Many key issues and trends are having an impact on today’s entertainment industry. Here are some of the topics that will be explored further in this book.

Understanding Our Audience

In order to understand entertainment, it is first necessary to understand the audience. Everyone likes to be entertained, but not everyone is entertained in the same manner. Traditional broadcast television, for example, has been a mainstay of the entertainment industry since the invention of the medium in the mid-20th century. Today, the abundance of mobile devices offers an alternative to traditional TV viewing through online streaming.

According to the Pew Research Center, “about six-in-ten of those ages 18 to 29 (61%) say the primary way they watch television now is with streaming services on the Internet, compared with 31% who say they mostly watch via a cable or satellite subscription and 5% who mainly watch with a digital antenna.”1 This shift toward streaming has presented challenges for broadcast and cable television executives as they scramble to regain audience share.

Television is not the only sector of the entertainment industry affected by changing audience tastes. Immersive entertainment has become the norm for a generation of Millennials who have grown up in a world of interactive electronic media. Consequently, museums, theme parks, and casinos are reinventing themselves to reach members of this audience by creating entertainment options that resonate with them.

Advanced Technology

A great deal of the changes in audience tastes can be attributed to advances in technology. The entertainment industry is being challenged to change its traditional business models to meet the technological demands of its consumers.

Technological changes are occurring in just about every area of the entertainment industry including film, television, radio, and music, to name just a few. The industry is being forced to deal with new technology, but the changes are difficult. In some sectors of the entertainment industry, such as publishing, the business models that have been around for decades are becoming obsolete. The challenge now is to write a new operations manual and stay in business at the same time.

Big Media Companies

Big media companies are getting bigger. Consolidation of media ownership in the 1980s and 1990s led to some big fish that control the entertainment industry today. Some of the biggest media companies ← 2 | 3 → are The Walt Disney Company, Comcast, Sony Corp., and CBS.2 These companies have entertainment holdings that span film to television, radio to newspapers, sports to websites.

The big media companies are no longer in the film or television business. They are in the entertainment business—all of it. Those interested in working in entertainment are wise to understand how diverse some of these companies are. The Columbia Journalism Review keeps track of media ownership on its website, www.cjr.org/resources.

Vertical Integration

As media companies get larger, they also have more vertical integration. That means they control the entertainment product during production and delivery to the consumer. Comcast Corporation is an example of a company with vertical integration. Comcast owns Universal Pictures, NBC, 40+ cable channels, and the Universal Studios theme parks, among other holdings.3 Comcast has the ability to produce a film, air the film on one of its NBC or cable channels, and develop a theme park attraction based on the film. Comcast owns the content every step of the way, from concept to delivery to consumer.

The advantage of vertical integration for the company is its ability to streamline costs. The disadvantage of vertical integration to the consumer is a monopoly of the market.

Horizontal Integration

Some of the big media companies also use horizontal integration to control more of the market share. Horizontal integration occurs when a media company owns assets that compete for the same demographic in the same entertainment sector. Digital First Media, for example, owns more than a dozen newspapers in the Southern California market. These include the Orange County Register, Riverside Press Enterprise, Long Beach Press-Telegram, and Pasadena Star News.4

As with vertical integration, the advantage of horizontal integration for a company is primarily cost savings. The disadvantage to the consumer is a monopoly with fewer voices controlling media content.


Another concept seen more frequently as media companies get larger is synergy. “Synergy is all about marketing and the halo effect, which can enable one form of a product to morph into another,” according to Al Lieberman and Patricia Esgate.5 Many examples of synergy can be found in the entertainment industry. An original entertainment product—for example, a film or a television show—is a huge success and is morphed into merchandise, books, theatrical performances, DVDs, mobile phone apps, theme park rides, etc.

Take the example of the movie Frozen, produced by the Walt Disney Company. The animated movie was a blockbuster box office success. The Frozen brand was turned into toys, princess costumes, books, spinoff animated film shorts, a theme park ride, and a theatrical production. The Walt Disney Company is a master of synergy. Today many entertainment companies use the concept of synergy to leverage a successful entertainment product, whether it be with films like Frozen or books like the Harry Potter novels.

Copyright Concerns

One of the biggest concerns throughout the entertainment industry is how to control content and protect copyrights. New technology is making it easier and faster to share files containing music, television programs, video games, etc. Now the big question for the entertainment industry is how to protect copyrighted material, so companies continue making a profit from the work they produce. Illegal downloading of music decimated the music industry. Entertainment executives in other areas are worried the problems in the music industry will soon become their problems as well. ← 3 | 4 →

Power of Research

It doesn’t happen often that a big decision in the entertainment industry is made solely on a gut feeling. More often than not the decision is based on careful, in-depth research. Those interested in entertainment should understand how to do research and what its limitations are. Understanding statistics is useful in this field, as well as knowing how to use research databases and search engines. Many university libraries offer courses and sessions on how to do research.

Obsessed with Entertainment

Americans have become obsessed with entertainment and celebrities. Film stars have replaced fashion models on the covers of magazines. Entertainment news programs are so popular that new websites, magazines, and television shows devoted to entertainment are popping up everywhere.

The entertainment industry is fun, glamorous, and exciting. It is filled with a constant stream of challenges and changes. The industry is also very competitive and a lot of hard work. It provides opportunities for creativity, competition, and the development of new products and services to keep people engaged and entertained. An Introduction to the Entertainment Industry will illustrate all of this in the following chapters.


People love movies. Film is a prominent sector of the entertainment industry as far as the amount of money spent making movies and the prestige of the film industry. But, streaming services like Netflix and Amazon have changed the way people watch movies. The number of people going to the theater to see a film has steadily declined in recent years. People now spend significantly more time watching movies at home and on mobile devices. These and other industry trends will be explained in the chapter on film.


Americans continue to have a love affair with television. It may seem hard to believe, but the typical American adult spends an average of 35 hours a week watching television.6 However, the number of hours Americans spend watching traditional network and cable television has shown a steady decline. Smart TVs and streaming services have promoted the trend of “cord-cutting,” especially among Millennials. The chapter on television will talk about this and other aspects of the business.


Radio reaches more than 241 million listeners a week. With more than 14,800 stations across the United States, the amount of time people spend with radio is significant and is expected to remain relatively constant.7 The power of radio is often overlooked. But with options such as satellite radio and Internet streaming now available to listeners, radio continues to be a popular entertainment choice for Americans. Some of the reasons for the popularity of this medium will be discussed in the chapter on radio.


One of the oldest entertainment options is theater. Long before most people could read, theater entertained the masses. Today theatergoers can see shows on New York’s Broadway, London’s West End, and in a variety of regional and local theater houses. Theater continues to be a vibrant place to work for both actors and for those who work behind the scenes. Some of the current challenges and trends facing the industry will be discussed in the chapter on theater. ← 4 | 5 →


Founder/Owner, Travis Gafford ESports

Travis Gafford conducts and reports interviews for the growing field of eSports. He is the founder and owner of Travis Gafford ESports, an eSports content company.

Travis started his business in 2011, but he had worked for other entertainment companies before that. He spent some time with CBS Interactive and Yahoo E-Sports but also did a large amount of freelance work. He received his Bachelor’s degree in Communications from Cal State Long Beach. This was where he did most of that freelance work, as building a portfolio was important to him.

His content focus is League of Legends, and he goes where the eSports events take him. With the World Championships in China, Travis found himself there for three weeks, covering every piece of new content he could. He uses time in the off-season to film, edit, and upload content for his subscribers. Because Travis owns his company, he really has no set schedule. “Since I don’t have to clock in and out, I have to stay on myself all the time,” he said.

Travis enjoys the audience feedback about his work since it drives him to create better content. “Being appreciated on Reddit is rare, but it goes a long way,” said Travis. He always wanted a job with near-immediate results, not something in an office all day. The challenges of content creation are actually at a high point right now, he said. Attaining sponsors and sustaining the brand and business are very challenging. Figuring out monetization of videos and how to make the most of the views he gets can be difficult, but that’s part of the fun.

Travis recommends those interested in the field take a regular job to sustain their content creation at first. Then once their brand is built and solidified, they can take the leap for a full-time business. Travis is excited about future trends in the eSports industry. He hopes the monetization issues will get resolved, and the sponsors will continue to support him and eSports as a whole. ← 5 | 6 →


The recorded music industry has been heavily impacted by the development of digital technology. The creation of the iPod and the ability to download and purchase music online has taken its toll on CD sales and the existence of once-popular brick and mortar music stores. Digital technology has also affected the relationships between musicians and recording studios. All of this will be addressed in the chapter on music.


Museums serve a dual purpose of educating and entertaining. Once upon a time museums were places where people could learn about art, history, and science in a passive manner by looking at artifacts. Today museums are much more hands-on and interactive. The chapter on museums will show how the public’s growing interest in interactivity has led many museums to develop innovative exhibits that educate visitors while keeping them entertained.


X, 254
ISBN (Hardcover)
ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2009 (February)
Unterhaltungsindustrie Entertainment trend Entertainment career Entertainment study Entertainment
New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Oxford, Wien, 2018. X, 254 pp., 23 b/w ill.

Biographical notes

Andi Stein (Author) Beth Bingham Georges (Author)

Andi Stein is a Professor in the Department of Communications at California State University, Fullerton. She is the author of Why We Love Disney: The Power of the Disney Brand and Attracting Attention: Promotion and Marketing for Tourism Attractions and co-author of News Writing in a Multimedia World. She worked as a journalist and public relations practitioner for 16 years prior to entering academia. Stein has a B.A. from George Washington University, an M.A. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and a Ph.D. from the University of Oregon. Beth Bingham Georges is a full-time Lecturer in the Department of Communications at California State University, Fullerton. She began her career in television news and has more than 18 years experience as a reporter, anchor, and producer in markets in Southern California and Georgia. Georges is the author of Workbook for Broadcast News Writing for Professionals. She has a B.A. from the University of California, San Diego, and an M.A. from California State University, Fullerton.


Title: An Introduction to the Entertainment Industry
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266 pages